Federal Laws and Incentives for Air Quality / Emissions
The list below contains summaries of all Federal laws and incentives related to Air Quality / Emissions.
Airport Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) and Infrastructure Incentives
The Zero Emissions Airport Vehicle and Infrastructure Pilot Program provides funding to airports for 50% of the eligible cost to acquire ZEVs. The vehicles must be used in on-road applications, employed exclusively for airport purposes, and must meet the Federal Aviation Administration's Buy American requirements. Airports are also eligible for funding to install or modify fueling infrastructure to support the vehicles involved in the project. To be eligible, an airport must be for public use. The program will give priority to applicants located in nonattainment areas, as defined by the Clean Air Act, and projects that achieve the greatest air quality benefits, as measured by the amount of emissions reduced per dollar of funds spent under the program. For more information, see the Zero Emissions Airport Vehicle and Infrastructure Pilot Program website. Reference Public Law 112-95 and 49 U.S. Code 47136a)
Point of Contact
Federal Aviation Administration, Planning and Environmental Division
U.S. Department of Transportation
Phone: (202) 267-8824
Laws and Regulations
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Requirement
Vehicle and engine manufacturers are required to report annual GHG emissions to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Vehicle and engine manufacturers outside of the light-duty sector are required to report carbon dioxide emissions levels beginning with Model Year 2011 and other GHG emissions in subsequent model years. This includes heavy trucks, motorcycles, and non-road engines and equipment. The reporting requirement also applies to suppliers of fossil fuels or industrial GHGs and facilities that emit at least 25,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. For more information, see EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program website. (Reference 40 CFR 86-90, 94, 98, 1033, 1039, 1042, 1045, 1048, 1051, 1054, and 1065)
Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards
Vehicle manufacturers must meet fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles sold in the United States. The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulates fuel economy standards, while the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates GHG emissions.
NHTSA's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program and EPA's light-duty vehicle GHG emissions program set standards for passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. By Model Year (MY) 2025, these vehicles must meet an estimated combined average fuel economy of 48.7 to 49.7 miles per gallon or higher. The standards provide flexibility to manufacturers, including the ability to earn credits for alternative fuel vehicles. For more information on the standards through MY 2016, see the final rule in the Federal Register. For information on the standards from MY 2017 through MY 2025, see the final rule in the Federal Register.
NHTSA and EPA also regulate fuel economy and GHG emissions for on-road vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500 pounds or greater and the engines that power them. For MY 2014 through MY 2018 heavy-duty and medium-duty vehicles that are not already covered by the standards described above, manufacturers must meet increasingly stringent fuel economy and GHG emissions standards tailored to each of three main regulatory subcategories: combination tractors (also known as semi trucks); heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans; and vocational vehicles (such as delivery, refuse, and tow trucks; transit, shuttle, and school buses; and emergency vehicles). The standards provide flexibility, allowing for emissions and/or fuel consumption credits to be averaged, banked, or traded. For more information, refer to the final rule in the Federal Register.
For more information, see the EPA's Regulations and Standards website and NHTSA's CAFE website. (Reference 40 CFR 85-86, 600, 1033, 1036-1037, 1039, 1065-1066, and 1068; 49 CFR 523, 531, 533-534, and 537-538; and 49 U.S. Code Chapter 329)