Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 11/3/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

Model Year 2015: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/30/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C., Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment 10/10/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Clean Cities Overview and Contacts 8/15/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program with contact information for Clean Cities program staff and for the coordinators of the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

Clean Cities Overview: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 8/15/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure Smith, M.; Gonzales, J. 8/5/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Englewood, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets Laughlin, M; Burnham, A. 8/1/2014 Reports

Energetics, Inc., Columbia, Maryland; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This case study highlights five school districts that used propane-fueled school buses successfully.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 Davis, S.C.; Diegel, S.W.; Boundy, R.G. 7/31/2014 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data).

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2014 Bourbon, E. 7/31/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2014 and July 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 5 cents from $3.65 to $3.70; diesel decreased 6 cents from $3.97 to $3.91; CNG price increased 2 cents from $2.15 to $2.17; ethanol (E85) decreased 18 cents from $3.41 to $3.23; propane decreased 24 cents from $3.31 to $3.07; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 3 cents from $4.01 to 3.98.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.53 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.86 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2014 Bourbon, E. 6/3/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2014 and April 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 31 cents from $3.34 to $3.65; diesel increased 8 cents from $3.89 to $3.97; CNG price increased 6 cents from $2.09 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 37 cents from $3.04 to $3.41; propane increased 19 cents from $3.12 to $3.31; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 5 cents from $3.97 to $4.01.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.50 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $1.17 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2014 Bourbon, E. 3/4/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2014 and January 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 11 cents from $3.45 to $3.34; diesel decreased 2 cents from $3.91 to $3.89; CNG price remained the same at $2.09; ethanol (E85) also remained the same at $3.04; propane increased 16 cents from $2.96 to $3.12; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 5 cents from $4.02 to $3.97.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.25 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.95 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

EPAct Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 3/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

2014 Future of Fuels: An Analysis of Government Projections through 2040 2/7/2014 Reports

NACS, Alexandria, Virginia

This report is an evaluation of the U.S. Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook 2014.

Notes: This publication is copyrighted by the NACS and is accessed at http://www.nacsonline.com.

Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

Alternative Fuel Vehicle & Fueling Infrastructure Deployment Barriers & the Potential Role of Private Sector Financial Solutions Dougherty, S., Nigro, N. 12/31/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This paper examines how private financing can address the barriers to demand facing electric, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their related fueling infrastructure. Starting with a review of the state of the market, it covers significant barriers to market demand and barriers for private investors and concludes with a review of innovative finance options used in other sectors that could be applied to the alternative fuel vehicle market.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October, 2013 Bourbon, E. 12/3/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 4, 2013 and October 18, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 20 cents from $3.65 to $3.45; diesel remained the same at $3.91; CNG price has decreased 5 cents, from $2.14 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) has decreased 19 cents from $3.23 to $3.04; propane increased 23 cents from $2.73 to $2.96; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 13 cents from $3.89 to $4.02.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.36 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $0.22 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/1/2013 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

Model Year 2014: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 11/25/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July, 2013 Babcock, S. 8/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 12, 2013 and July 26, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 6 cents from $3.59 to $3.65; diesel has decreased 8 cents from $3.99 to $3.91; CNG price has increased 4 cents, from $2.10 to $2.14; ethanol (E85) has decreased 7 cents from $3.30 to $3.23; propane in unchanged at $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 22 cents from $4.11 to $3.89.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.51 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $0.92 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Light-Duty Vehicle and Fuel Pathways: A Synthesis of Recent Research Nigro, N., Jiang, S. 7/19/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

Transitioning to a cleaner fleet of advanced vehicles powered by electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels or petroleum products can yield a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum consumption. A meaningful assessment of the comparative merits of these alternate fuel pathways requires a solid understanding of their technological potential to reduce emissions. Available studies evaluating full lifecycle emissions rely on various assumptions of that potential and yield a wide range of results. This brief summarizes and synthesizes the results of several recent studies and presents the full range of greenhouse gas emission estimates for each type of advanced vehicle and fuel. It also explains the reasons these estimates vary so widely and identifies opportunities for future analyses that use a consistent set of scenarios with transparent assumptions in order to compare the greenhouse gas impacts of fuel and vehicle pathways.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

What is the GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator was developed to use the GREET system to help fleets choose the alternative fuel vehicles that will best meet a variety of organizational transportation goals and legal requirements, including reducing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

2013 Propane Market Outlook; Assessment of Key Market Trends, Threats, and Opportunities Facing the Propane Industry Through 2020 4/10/2013 Reports

ICF International, Fairfax, Virginia; Propane Education & Research Council, Washington, D.C.

In the last ten years, propane markets have been transformed by the combined effects of volatile energy prices, swings in economic outlook, advancements in propane and competitive technologies, improvements in energy efficiency, and changes in propane supply. While many of these factors have resulted in increased challenges for propane marketers, they have also created new opportunities for the industry. Adapting to these changes and taking advantage of the opportunities will be one of the defining challenges for the propane industry in the next decade. In this report, ICF evaluates the major market factors driving propane demand, and reviews the outlook for propane markets through 2020.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April, 2013 Babcock, S. 4/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between March 29, 2013 and April 12, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 30 cents from $3.29 to $3.59; diesel has increased 3 cents from $3.96 to $3.99; CNG price is unchanged, remaining $2.10; ethanol (E85) has increase 13 cents from $3.17 to $3.30; propane has increased 5 cents from $2.68 to $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 6 cents from $4.05 to $4.11.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.49 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.07 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2013 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2013 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2013 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas.

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels 1/1/2013 Books & Chapters

Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs) operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns over petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. This report assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80% across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. It examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, effective, and sustained but adaptive policies such as research and development (R&D), subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers such as cost and consumer choice.

Notes: This book is available for purchase from The National Academies Press.

Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles, Preprint Melaina, M. Bremson, J., Solo, K 1/1/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of California Davis, Davis, California; Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado

The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

Notes: Presented at the 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference, Austin, Texas, November 4-7, 2012

Model Year 2013: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 12/13/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG vehicles.

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October, 2012 Babcock, S. 11/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between September 28, 2012 and October 12, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 30 cents from $3.52 to $3.82; diesel has increased 38 cents from $$3.75 to $4.13; CNG price has increased 7 cents from $2.05 to $2.12; ethanol (E85) has increased 23 cents from $3.24 to $3.47; propane has dropped 8 cents from $2.64 to $2.56; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 35 cents from $3.83 to $4.18.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.70 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.09 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 10/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Transit on the Cutting Edge of Clean Technology 9/1/2012 Reports

American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC

This white paper reviews the substantial progress that transit agencies have made in investing in innovative clean technologies and fuels, such as electricity, hybrid vehicles, electric storage, biofuels, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cells.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No. 2 9/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

EPA Announces Final Rulemaking for Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions 8/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is adopting changes to the regulations found in 40 CFR part 85 subpart F for clean alternative fuel conversion manufacturers. This action affects regulations applicable to manufacturers of light-duty vehicle and heavy-duty highway vehicle and engine clean alternative fuel conversion systems. The revisions will streamline the compliance process while maintaining environmentally protective controls.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July, 2012 Babcock, S. 8/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 13, 2012 and July 27, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has dropped 37 cents from $3.89 to $3.52; diesel has dropped 37 cents from $$4.12 to $3.75; CNG price has dropped 3 cents from $2.08 to $2.05; ethanol (E85) has dropped 23 cents from $3.47 to $3.24; propane has dropped 27 cents from $2.91 to $2.64; and biodiesel (B20) has dropped 35 cents from $4.18 to $3.83.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.47 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.06 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Annual Energy Outlook 2012; with Projections to 2035 6/1/2012 Reports

U.S. Energy Information Administration

The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (AEO2012) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2012 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2012 is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 29 alternative cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy. Many of the implications of the alternative cases are discussed in the "Issues in focus" section of this report.</p><p>Key results highlighted in AEO2012 include continued modest growth in demand for energy over the next 25 years and increased domestic crude oil and natural gas production, largely driven by rising production from tight oil and shale resources. As a result, U.S. reliance on imported oil is reduced; domestic production of natural gas exceeds consumption, allowing for net exports; a growing share of U.S. electric power generation is met with natural gas and renewables; and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions remain below their 2005 level from 2010 to 2035, even in the absence of new Federal policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2012 Babcock, S. 5/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between March 30, 2012 and April 13, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 52 cents per gallon from $3.37 per gallon to $3.89 per gallon; diesel has risen 26 cents per gallon from $3.86 to $4.12; CNG price has dropped 5 cents from $2.13 to $2.08; ethanol (E85) has risen 33 cents from $3.14 to $3.47 per gallon; propane has dropped 17 cents from $3.08 to $2.91; and biodiesel (B20) has risen 23 cents from $3.95 to $4.18 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.81 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.01 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No.1 5/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-iannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory 3/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 3/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2012 Babcock, S. 2/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 13, 2012 and January 27, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 9 cents per gallon from $3.46 per gallon to $3.37 per gallon; diesel has risen 5 cents per gallon from $3.81 to $3.86; CNG price has risen 4 cents from $2.09 to $2.13; ethanol (E85) has dropped 5 cents from $3.19 to $3.14 per gallon; propane has risen 2 cents from $3.06 to $3.08; and biodiesel (B20) has risen 4 cents from $3.91 to $3.95 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.24 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.07 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Life-Cycle Analysis of Shale Gas and Natural Gas Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. 12/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis Pathways with GREET Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Palou-Rivera, I.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.Q. 11/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel na

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2011 Babcock, S. 11/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between September 30, 2011 and October 14, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 22 cents per gallon from $3.68 per gallon to $3.46 per gallon; CNG price has risen 2 cents from $2.07 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) has dropped 7 cents from $3.26 to $3.19 per gallon; propane has dropped 3 cents from $3.09 to $3.06; and biodiesel (B20) has dropped 11 cents from $4.02 to $3.91 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.37 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.05 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 15, No. 2 10/1/2011 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now features news and articles about Clean Cities coalition activities in promoting the reduction in the use of petroleum transportation fuel. The October 2011 issue features stories about idle reduction equipment benefits, coordinator profiles, the 2011 Clean Cities Stakeholder Summit and other coalition news.

Model Year 2012 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG vehicles.

Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers Shea, S. 9/1/2011 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

Many niche market fleets, which operate specially designed vehicles that serve very specific functions, are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. One prime example is the refuse hauler sector, whose 136,000 trucks average only 2.8 miles per gallon, using more than 1.2 billion gallons of fuel annually in the United States. This sector could substantially decrease its petroleum consumption through the use of alternative fuel or advanced technology vehicles. Before adopting these technologies, a refuse hauler fleet should consider both the technologies' benefits and the fleet's individual needs.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2011 Babcock, S. 8/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 14, 2011 and July 29, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 1 cent per gallon from $3.69 per gallon to $3.68 per gallon; CNG price has risen 1 cent from $2.06 to $2.07; ethanol (E85) has risen 6 cents from $3.20 to $3.26 per gallon; propane has dropped 10 cents from $3.19 to $3.09; and biodiesel has dropped 3 cents from $4.05 to $4.02 per gallon. CNG is about $1.61 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 92 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2011 Babcock, S. 5/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2011 and April 15, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 61 cents per gallon from $3.08 per gallon to $3.69 per gallon; CNG price has risen from $1.93 to $2.06; ethanol (E85) has risen 45 cents from 2.75 to $3.20 per gallon; and biodiesel has risen 55 cents from $3.50 to $4.05. CNG is about $1.63 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 83 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 5/1/2011

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels?electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. </p><p>The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. </p><p>The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report Ward, J.; Davis, S.; Batten, B.; Diegel, S.; Duggal, V.; Duleep, K.; Smith, R.; Yeakel, S. 3/1/2011 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2011 Laughlin, M.D. 2/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 24, 2011 and February 7, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 30 cents per gallon from $2.78 per gallon to $3.08 per gallon; CNG price has remained the same at $1.93; and ethanol (E85) has risen 31 cents from $2.44 to $2.75 per gallon. CNG is about $1.15 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 81 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Guidebook to available Model Year 2011 alternative fuel and advanced vehicles including electric, plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles as well as vehicles powered by natural gas, propane, ethanol and biodiesel.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2010 Laughlin, M.D. 11/1/2010 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2010 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 4, 2010 and October 14, 2010, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 7 cents per gallon from $2.71 per gallon to $2.78 per gallon; CNG price has risen 2 cents from $1.91 to $1.93; and ethanol (E85) has risen 14 cents from $2.30 to $2.44 per gallon. CNG is about 85 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 67 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2011 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as one CNG vehicle.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2010 Laughlin, M.D. 9/1/2010 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2010 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 12, 2010 and July 23, 2010, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has fallen 13 cents per gallon from $2.84 per gallon to $2.71 per gallon; CNG price has risen 1 cents from $1.90 to $1.91; and ethanol (E85) has fallen 12 cents from $2.42 to $2.30 per gallon. CNG is about 80 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 54 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 14, No. 2 9/1/2010 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now, a semi-annual publication, is a roundup of events and news about the Clean Cities Coalitions including the Plug-In Vehicle and Infrastructure Workshop (July 2010), propane conversions, and stories about successful applications of alternative fuels.

Identification and Review of State/Federal Legislative and Regulatory Changes Required for the Introduction of New Transportation Fuels 8/4/2010 Reports

Sierra Research Inc., Sacramento, California

Sierra Research has, at the request of the American Petroleum Institute, conducted an independent review of existing federal, state and other statutes, regulations, and requirements that must be changed and other significant implementation hurdles that must be overcome prior to the introduction of E15 and other new transportation fuels into commerce.

Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory 6/24/2010 Technology Bulletins

Seven propane fleets, of varying sizes, were included in the LPG tank fueling evaluation. At each of these fleets a sampling of vehicles were observed during fueling (105 vehicles total). Vehicles were noted when their overfill prevention device (OPD) failed to activate and stop the fueling process. This was done to quantify the frequency of such an occurrence in practice in the field, which could lead to safety and environmental issues.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2010 Laughlin, M.D. 6/1/2010 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2010 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 2 and April 12, 2010, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 19 cents per gallon from $2.65 per gallon to $2.84 per gallon; CNG price has risen 5 cents from $1.85 to $1.90; and ethanol (E85) has risen 4 cents from $2.38 to $2.42 per gallon. CNG is about 94 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 58 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Propane Vehicles: Status, Challenges, and Opportunities Rood-Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K. 5/1/2010 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This report discusses the potential increase in the number of on-road propane vehicles. It outlines the state of propane technology, the current market status, available federal and state incentives, emission benefits, carbon benefits, barriers and opportunities in the marketplace for propane vehicles.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2010 Laughlin, M.D. 4/1/2010 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2010 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between Jan. 19 and Jan. 29, 2010, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 1 cent per gallon from $2.64 per gallon to $2.65 per gallon; CNG price has dropped 1 cent from $1.86 to $1.85; and ethanol (E85) has risen 11 cents from $2.27 to $2.38 per gallon. CNG is about 80 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 71 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions 4/1/2010 Reports

U.S. Department of Transportation, Center for Climate Change and Envrionmental Forecasting, Washington, DC

This U.S. Department of Transportation report is submitted in response to the requirements of Section 1101(c) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. It is intended to help inform the debate on surface transportation reauthorization and climate change legislation.</p><p>The report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels and trends from the transportation sector and analyzes the full range of strategies available to reduce these emissions. These strategies include: introducing low-carbon fuels, increasing vehicle fuel economy, improving transportation system efficiency, and reducing carbon-intensive travel activity. While the report does not provide recommendations, it does analyze five categories of policy options for implementing the strategies: an economy-wide price signal, efficiency standards, market incentives, transportation planning and funding programs and research and development.

2010 Propane Market Outlook; Assessment of Key Market Trends, Threats, and Opportunities Facing the Propane Industry Through 2020 3/31/2010 Reports

ICF International, Fairfax, Virginia; Propane Education & Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Energy markets are changing at an unprecedented pace. These changes have had dramatic impacts on propane markets, which have been transformed by the combined effects of volatile energy prices, evolving environmental and energy policies, swings in economic outlook, advancements in propane and competitive technologies, and improvements in energy efficiency.</p><p>This report updates the 2009 Propane Market Outlook. While the key drivers of propane demand remain unchanged, the outlook for propane demand growth is less positive than when the Propane Market Outlook was first released in July 2009. Oil and propane prices have increased, the impact of the economic downturn has been more severe than anticipated, and the projected impacts of energy conservation and efficiency trends on propane markets have become more pronounced.

Propane Basics 3/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Propane powers about 190,000 vehicles in the U.S. and more than 14 million worldwide. Propane vehicles are a good choice for many fleet applications including school buses, shuttle buses, taxies and light-duty trucks.

Propane Technology Review 2010 Lichtner, S.; Pack, L.; Maffett, E.; Riedel, V.; Willis, R. 1/1/2010 Reports

Energetics, Inc., Columbia, Maryland

Propane Technology Review 2010 includes information about on-road vehicles, irrigation engines, residential and commercial uses of propane. The review looks at technology that has come to market as a result of PERC's research efforts and partnerships.

Propane Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Comparative Analysis 2009 Antes, M.; Brindle, R.; Kiuru, K.; Lloyd, M.; Munderville, M.; Pack, L. 1/1/2010 Reports

Energetics, Inc., Columbia, Maryland

This report quantifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile of propane compared to other fuels in selected applications of importance to the U.S. propane industry. The analysis presented in this report represents an expansion and update to a study sponsored by the Propane Education & ResearchCouncil and prepared by Energetics Incorporated in 2007. This updated analysis uses the latest data regarding energy consumption rates, emissions factors, and equipment efficiencies to estimate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the use of various energy options in a range of residential and commercial, on-road, off-road, and agriculture applications. This study reassesses the greenhouse gas emissions profile of energy choices in seven applications previously analyzed in the 2007 study and for the firsttime examines six new applications not considered in the earlier study.The results of this study show that propane is among the most attractive options for avoiding greenhouse gas emissions in every application considered. At the point of use, propane emits fewer greenhouse gases than gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, or E85 ethanol per unit of energy.

Clean Cities 2010 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 12/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 32-page booklet offers information about available 2010 alternative fuel vehicles including natural gas, propane, hybrid, ethanol and biodiesel vehicles.

An Action Plan for Cars: The Policies Needed to Reduce U.S. Petroleum Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Heywood, J.; Baptista, P.; Berry, I.; Bhatt, K.; Cheah, L.; De Sisternes, F.; Karplus, V.; Keith, D.; Khusid, M.; MacKenzie, D.; McAulay, J. 12/1/2009 Reports

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts

Reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from cars and light?]duty trucks in the United States over the next several decades requires that we implement a clear and coordinated set of policies now. This report describes a portfolio of policies which, in the view of the authors, is needed to put personal vehicle transportation on the road to sustainability in the longer term. To incentivize adoption of more fuel efficient vehicles, we propose coupling existing near?]term fuel economy standards with a feebate incentive program and gradual increases in fuel taxes. We further propose driver education initiatives that would give vehicle owners information on how to maximize fuel savings in their purchase and driving decisions. Finally, we underscore the need for a long?]term strategy for fuels that evaluates fuels?]related programs based on their contribution to reducing life?]cycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Together, these policies offer a robust plan of action that will focus and streamline current efforts to achieve these two important national goals. Perhaps most importantly, this plan lays a much?]needed foundation for a comprehensive, adaptable long?]term policy effort. A more detailed summary of the recommended set of policy measures can be found in Section 2.

Model Year 2010 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, as well as one CNG vehicle and one hydrogen fuel cell vehicle for Model Year 2010.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2009 Laughlin, M.D. 10/1/2009 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2009 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 16 and October 26, 2009, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 20 cents per gallon from $2.44 per gallon to $2.64 per gallon; CNG has risen 13 cents from $1.73 to $1.86; and ethanol (E85) has risen 14 cents from $2.13 to $2.27 per gallon. CNG is about 78 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 57 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2009 Laughlin, M.D. 7/1/2009 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2009 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 20 and July 31, 2009, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 42 cents per gallon from $2.02 per gallon to $2.44 per gallon; CNG has risen 9 cents from $1.64 to $1.73; and ethanol (E85) has risen 25 cents from $1.88 to $2.13 per gallon. CNG is about 71 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 31 cents less per gallon than gasoline.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 13, No. 2 6/1/2009 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on San Antonio's Green Patrol to reduce idling at schools; Propane Road Shows in Virginia, Maryland, and South Carolina; Green Fleet Workshops in Lansing, Michigan; CabAire truck stop electrification project; Tucson's Sustainability and Energy Expo; Antelope Valley, California, green vehicle charity event; and University of Illinois-Chicago fleet experience story.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2009 Laughlin, M.D. 5/1/2009 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2009 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1 and April 15, 2009, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 16 cents per gallon from $1.86 per gallon to $2.02 per gallon; CNG has risen one cent from $1.63 to $1.64; and ethanol (E85) has risen 7 cents from $1.81 to $1.88 per gallon. CNG is about 38 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 63 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Advancing New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels 5/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Vehicle Technologies Program under the U.S. Department of Energy is actively developing and accelerating the deployment of clean and efficient vehicle technologies, as well as renewable fuels. The Vehicle Technologies program works with industry, universities, and state and local governments to strengthen the economy, create jobs, and reduce the U.S. demand for petroleum.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 13, No. 1 2/1/2009 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on Interstate 65, the nation's first biofuels corridor; Odyssey Day activities celebrated across the country; Melissa Howell named 2008 Clean Cities Coordinator of the Year; Meijer, Inc. fleet experience in reducing miles traveled and idling while increasing profitability; Central Texas CCC incentives for electric vehicles; and Texas CCC promotion of rebates for propane-powered mowers.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2009 Laughlin, M.D. 2/1/2009 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2009 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 12 and January 30, 2009, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped $1.18 from $3.04 per gallon to $1.86 per gallon; CNG has dropped 37 cents from $2.01 to $1.63; and ethanol (E85) has dropped $1.01 from $2.82 to $1.81 per gallon. CNG is about 23 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 5 cents less per gallon than gasoline.

Clean Cities 2009 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 11/1/2008 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 32-page booklet offers information about available 2009 alternative fuel vehicles including natural gas, propane, electric, hybrid, ethanol and biodiesel vehicles.

Model Year 2009 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2008 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, as well as one CNG vehicle and one hydrogen fuel cell vehicle for Model Year 2009.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 4 10/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on 15th Anniversary of Clean Cities program; communications programs; first Clean Cities Coalitions in Atlanta, Denver, and Philadelphia; and alternative fuel transit buses.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2008 Laughlin, M.D. 10/1/2008 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2008 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 2 and October 16, 2008, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 87 cents from $3.91 per gallon to $3.04 per gallon; CNG has dropped 33 cents from $2.34 to $2.01; and ethanol (E85) has dropped 45 cents from $3.27 to $2.82 per gallon.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 3 7/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on General Motors Rewards to Clean Cities Coalitions; Central Indiana CC Hosts Annual Legislative Breakfast; Northern Colorado CC Hosts Better Cars, Smarter Fleets Expo; Ann Arbor CC Receives CMAQ Grant for Infrastructure; and Specialty Solid Waste and Recycling Co. Serving Sunnyvale, Calif. with CNG Refuse Haulers.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2008 Laughlin, M.D. 7/1/2008 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2008 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 21 and July 31, 2008, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 48 cents from $2.99 per gallon to $3.91 per gallon; CNG has risen 30 cents from $2.04 to $2.34; and ethanol (E85) has risen 40 cents from $2.87 to $3.27 per gallon.

Federal Tax Incentives Encourage Alternative Fuel Use 5/1/2008 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. government provides several tax incentives for purchasing alternative fuel, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles; installing alternative fueling infrastructure; and producing, selling, or using alternative fuels. The IRS has defined alternative fuels as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); liquefied hydrogen; liquid fuel derived from coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process; liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass including ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable diesel; and P-series fuels. Current federal tax incentives are outlined in this fact sheet.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 2 5/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on law to increase fuel economy to 35 mpg by 2020; Tucson CC Coalition helps Super Bowl go green; Utah school bus drivers pledge to reduce idling; DOE designates New Orleans Clean Cities Coalition; Vermont Clean Cities co-sponsors plug-in hybrid electric vehicle event; DOE offers $30 million in cost-share funding for improving PHEV performance; IRS.gov features list of heavy-duty vehicles eligible for tax credits; Alamo Clean Cities in San Antonio develops hybrid taxi replacement program; no AFV mandate for private and local fleets.

Options for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles in Greensburg, Kansas Harrow, G. 5/1/2008 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

After a devastating tornado that destroyed the town of Greensburg, Kansas in May 2007, plans were developed to rebuild the town as a sustainable community. This report focuses on outlining key success factors of infrastructure, alternative vehicles, and alternative and renewable fuels as part of an integrated energy strategy.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2008 Laughlin, M.D. 4/1/2008 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2008 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1 and April 11, 2008, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 44 cents from $2.99 per gallon to $3.43 per gallon; CNG has risen 11 cents from $1.93 to $2.04; and ethanol (E85) has risen 36 cents from $2.51 to $2.87 per gallon.

Securing a Clean Energy Future-Greener Fuels, Greener Vehicles: A State Resource Guide 2/1/2008 Reports

National Governors Association, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. transportation sector is currently 97% dependent on oil. This heavy reliance on mostly imported oil leaves the U.S. vulnerable to supply interruptions, price fluctuations, economic instability, and consumer hardships. Yet there are core challenges to address before viable alternatives become available. These challenges include lack of alternative fuels in the marketplace; limited fuel distribution systems to get alternative fuels to consumers; and inadequate supply of alternative vehicles produced. The National Governors Association is suggesting that state governors can take four policy actions to meet the challenges: provide financial incentives through tax credits, deductions, grants and other financial means; pass rules and mandates specifying that state fuel distributors sell a certain quantity of alternative fuels; use their state's purchaing power to boost the adoption of alternative fuels or vehicles; and invest in research and demonstration efforts to speed new technologies to the marketplace.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - January 2008 Laughlin, M.D. 1/1/2008 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The January 2008 Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report is a quarterly report keeping you up to date on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between Jan. 21 and Jan. 31, 2008, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 illustrates that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 23 cents to $2.99 per gallon; CNG has risen 16 cents to $1.93; and ethanol (E85) has risen 11 cents to $2.51 per gallon.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 1 1/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on tax incentive information available on the Clean Cities Web site; the importance of communication among Clean Cities Coalitions; Missouri's first permanent hydrogen fueling station in Rolla; school bus idle reduction in Vermont; Pennsylvania's new E85 corridor; updated UL bulletin on E85 fuel dispensing equipment; EPA's SmartWay Grow and Go program; B99 put to work in Portland, Oregon; EPAct requirements for Federal Fleet to use alternative fuel

Propane Technology Review 2008 1/1/2008 Reports

Propane Education & Research Council, Washington, D.C.

This technology review published by the Propane Education and Research Council highlights propane-powered distributed generation,agricultural technologies, residential and commercial R&D and engine fuel programs.

Model Year 2008: Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2007 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Alternative Fuels Data Center. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This document provides facts and figures for all model year 2008 alternative fuel vehicles and advanced technology vehicles (including hybrid electric cars) available to fleet buyers and the general public.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - October 2007 Laughlin, M.D. 10/1/2007 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The October 2007 Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report is a quarterly report keeping you up to date on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between Oct. 2 and Oct 20, 2007, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 illustrates that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 27 cents to $2.76 per gallon; CNG has dropped 32 cents to $1.77; and ethanol (E85) has dropped 23 cents to $2.40 per gallon.

California State Alternative Fuels Plan 10/1/2007 Reports

Transportation Committee, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California; California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

The California State Alternative Fuels Plan presents strategies and actions California must take to increase the use of alternative non-petroleum fuels in a manner that minimizes costs to the state and maximizes the economic benefits of in-state production. The plan assessed various alternative fuels and developed fuel portfolios to meet California's goals to reduce petroleum consumption, increase alternative fuels use, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase in-state production of biofuels, without causing a significant degradation of public health and environmental quality. The key circumstances and conditions necessary to achieve the plan outcomes are presented for each fuel based on plan assumptions and analysis. The plan describes a 2050 Vision that extends the plan outcomes beyond the milestone years of 2012, 2017, and 2022 and lays a foundation for building a multi-fuel transportation energy future for California.