Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

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Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience Motta, R.;Kelly, K.;Warnock, W. 4/1/1996 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This report shows how this program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles.

CleanFleet Final Report Vehicle Maintenance and Durability, Vol. 3 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motor fuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

CleanFleet Final Report Fuel Economy, Vol. 4 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alternative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

CleanFleet Final Report Fleet Economics, Vol. 8 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The costs that face a fleet operator in implementing alternative motor fuels into fleet operations are examined. Five alternatives studied in the CleanFleet project are considered for choice of fuel: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85, and electricity. The cost assessment is built upon a list of thirteen cost factors grouped into the three categories: infrastructure costs, vehicle owning costs, and operating costs. Applicable taxes are included. A commonly used spreadsheet was adapted as a cost assessment tool. This tool was used in a case study to estimate potential costs to a typical fleet operator in package delivery service in the 1996 time frame. In addition, because electric cargo vans are unlikely to be available for the 1996 model year from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), the case study was extended to the 1998 time frame for the electric vans. Results of the case study are presented in cents per mile of vehicle travel for the fleet. Several options available to the fleet for implementing the fuels are examined.

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program: 19th Annual Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1995 6/1/1996 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

This nineteenth annual report serves to inform the United States Congress of the progress in fiscal year 1995 and the plans of the Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Research and Development Program. This annual report describes the progress made in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. Highlights of accomplishments in fiscal year 1995 are summarized and then followed by detailed descriptions of program activities in the areas of advanced battery fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories are provided. Also presented in this report is the status of incentives and use of foreign components, and a list of publications resulting from sponsored research and development.

CleanFleet Final Report Summary, Vol. 1 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

CleanFleet Final Report Project Design and Implementation, Vol. 2 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motor fuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eighty-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration, information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

Clean Cities Drive - Fall 1996 (Vol 3 No 4) 10/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) Clean Cities celebration of successes at the Second National Conference; 2) the Clean Cities constituency; 3) the support of AFV programs through CMAQ funding; 4) a public-access propane infrastructure built by Thermogas; 5) the arrival of station cars in many Clean Cities; 6) the importance of alternative fuels in Atlanta's Olympic efforts; 7) Clean Cities eligible for funding programs; 8) conference highlights; 9) DOE's need for input on local and private fleets; 10) support by national parks for Clean Cities goals; 11) Clean Cities on the Internet; 12) the Clean Cities network; 13) a Clean Cities update; 14) the new Clean Cities CD-ROM; and 15) a calendar of events.

FTP Emissions Test Results from Flexible-Fuel Methanol Dodge Spirits and Ford Econoline Vans Kelly, K.;Bailey, B.;Coburn, T.;Clark, W.;Eudy, L.;Lissiuk, P. 1/1/1996 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;Automotive Testing Lab., Inc.;ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc.;Environmental Research and Development Corporation

The first round of emissions testing of flexible fuel methanol vehicles from the U.S. federal fleet was completed in 1995. The vehicles tested include 71 flexible fuel M85 1993 Dodge Spirits, 16 flexible fuel 1994 M85 Ford Econoline Vans, and a similar number of standard gasoline Dodge Spirits and E150 Ford Econoline Vans. Results presented include a comparison of regulated exhaust and evaporative emissions and a discussion of the levels of air toxins, and the ozone-forming potential (OFP) of the measured emissions. Three private emissions laboratories tested vehicles taken from the general population of federal fleet vehicles in the Washington, D.C., New York City, Detroit, Chicago, and Denver metropolitan regions. Testing followed the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Test Procedures (FTPs) and detailed fuel changeover procedures as developed in the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) were tested using fuels consisting of 85% methanol to 15% gasoline (M85), 50% methanol to 50% gasoline (M50), and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). All vehicle/fuel combinations showed emissions well below the certification standards (including the more stringent Tier I standards). At these levels, the magnitude of the fuel-to-fuel differences in emissions from FFVs was relatively low. In general, there appeared to be a small drop in non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), and an increase in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for M85 compared to the same vehicles tested on RFG. The OFP (expressed in grams of ozone per mile) from the M85 tests were 40% to 50% lower than the RFG tests performed on the Dodge Spirits and Ford Econoline vans. The M85 tests also showed lower levels of benzene and 1,3-butadiene but increased formaldehyde.

Federal Test Procedure Emissions Test Results from Ethanol Variable-Fuel Vehicle Chevrolet Luminas Kelly, K.;Bailey, B.;Coburn, T.;Clark, W.;Lissiuk, P. 1/1/1996 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;Automotive Testing Lab.;Environmental Research and Development Corporation

The first round of Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions testing of variable-fuel ethanol vehicles from the U.S. Federal fleet was recently completed. The vehicles tested include 21 variable-fuel E85 1992 and 1993 Chevrolet Lumina sedans and an equal number of standard gasoline Luminas. Results presented include a comparison of regulated exhaust and evaporative emissions and a discussion of the levels of air toxics, as well as the calculated ozone-forming potential of the measured emissions. Two private emissions laboratories tested vehicles taken from the general population of Federal fleet vehicles in the Washington, D.C., and Chicago metropolitan regions. Testing followed the standard U.S. Environmental protection Agency's FTP and detailed fuel changeover procedures as developed in the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. Variable-fuel vehicles were tested on single respective batches of E85, E50 and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG) blended specifically for this test program.

Advanced Petroleum-based and Alternative Fuels 1999 Annual Progress Report Energy Conversion Team Chalk, Steven 10/1/1999 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy;Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy;Office of Transportation Technologies;Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies

How Much Energy Does It Take to Make a Gallon of Soydiesel? Morris, D.;Ahmed, I.;Decker, J. 1/1/1994 Reports

Inst. for Local Self-Reliance, Washington, DC

Is more energy used to grow soybean feedstock and to process it into soydiesel than is contained in soydiesel fuel itself? This study addresses this question. This report concludes that soydiesel production in the United States is a net energy generator. Even under a worst case scenario, more energy is contained in esterified soybean oil and its co-products - glycerine and soy meal - than is used to grow the soybean crop and process it into soydiesel fuel and associated products. If soybean is grown as a rotation crop with corn using state of the art farm practices as much as four times the energy input can be realized from the various products generated.

Round 1 Emissions Test Results from Compressed Natural Gas Vans and Gasoline Controls Operating in the U.S. Federal Fleet Kelly, K.;Bailey, B.;Coburn, T.;Eudy, L.;Lissiuk, P. 1/1/1996 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc.;Environmental Research and Development Corporation

The first round of emissions testing of light-duty alternative fuel vehicles placed in the U.S. federal fleet under the provisions of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act was recently completed. This undertaking included 75 Dodge B250 vans, of which 37 were dedicated compressed natural gas models, and 38 were standard gasoline controls. Data were collected on regulated exhaust emissions using the federal test procedures, and on a number of other quantities, through a statistically controlled program of investigation. All test vehicles were operated in routine federal service activities under normal working conditions, adhering as closely as possible to Chrysler's prescribed maintenance schedules. The data analysis conducted thus far indicates that the compressed natural gas vehicles exhibit notably lower regulated exhaust emission, on average, than their gasoline counterparts, and that these values are well within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. In addition, lower levels of toxic constituents are emitted by the compressed natural gas vehicles relative to their gasoline counterparts and they produce lower levels of ozone precursors as well. Performance measures include driver acceptance, fuel economy, operational cost, cost and level of maintenance, and emissions output. The most extensive effort of its kind, the AMFA evaluation program targets three alternative fuels - methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) - and encompasses several different types of vehicles, makes, and models operated in a number of federal service applications at various sites around the country. This paper specifically addresses the emissions performance of light-duty federal fleet AFVs operating on CNG. The data represents solely from Round 1 of a three-round testing program (hence, emissions deterioration is not specifically addressed).

CleanFleet Final Report Vehicle Emissions, Vol. 7 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from CleanFleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in vehicle technology among the three vehicle manufacturers (Ford, Dodge, Chevrolet) and differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicles/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 4, Iss. 3) 1/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: AFDC One-Stop Shopping for Emissions Data, New NGV's Pass Test, Federal Express Cleans Up, Heavy-Duty Cooperation, New AFV's from Detroit, A Clean Ride to School, Propane Vehicle Challenge

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 1 7/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: Ford liquefied petroleum gas-powered F-700 may set sales records; California considers fuel specifications; new ultra-safe LPG fueling nozzle; CNG 18-wheeler proves efficient; and alternative fuel alliance forms.

Clean Cities Drive - Summer 1996 (Vol. 3, No. 3) 7/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) state and fuel provider fleets acquiring alternative fuel vehicles; 2) the 1996 second national Clean Cities conference; 3) five Clean Cities receiving grants for natural gas programs; 4) enthusiasm for Clean Cities spreading into Canada, Mexico, and Chile; 5) an electric vehicle road trip; 6) airports as a centerpiece for Clean Cities programs; 7) alternative fuels in the skies; 8) California's use of technology to expand the fueling network; 9) the switch to clean vehicles by police departments; 10) James Ferguson, the Clean Cities Program Manager; 11) Clean Cities updates; and 12) a calendar of events.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 5, No. 1 8/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) industry and education experts working together to establish alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technician training standards; 2) developing liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuse trucks; 3) breaking down the barriers to alternative fuels; 4) the I-35 Corridor Coalition's support of LNG; 5) the Midwest Ethanol Demonstration Project; and 6) Detroit Diesel's development of a propane engine.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 2) 7/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) a report that alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) are approaching the performance and reliability expectations of gasoline vehicles among drivers of Federal fleet vehicles; 2) natural gas refuse trucks; 3) AFV student competitions; 4) advances in electric vehicles; and 5) new features on the AFDC's World Wide Web site.

First Semi-Annual Report AFDC Light Duty Vehicles Wooley, R.;O'Connor, J.K.;Schrock, L.;Kelly, K. 10/7/1993 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This report analyzes all AMFA light-duty fleet vehicles in the AMFA I and AMFA II programs. It is divided into the following analysis sections: program monitoring and data quality assessment, fuel economy analysis, performance and unscheduled maintenance analysis, emissions analysis, and future considerations.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 4 2/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) New Natural Gas powered Trucks Available in 1996; 2) Truck Standards in the Works; 3) Cummins Announces New Natural Gas Engine; 4) LNG Pavilion to Travel the Nation; 5) Weight Limits Challenge LNG Adoption

Clean Cities Drive - Post Conference Issue ( Vol. 3, No. 1) 1/1/1996 Newsletters

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

This issue includes articles on the following: Clean Cities Stakeholders First Annual Conference, GRI Announces Grants for Clean Cities, Antelope Valley Schools use Creative Funding To Keep Smog in Check, New Clean Cities Designations,

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 3) 12/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) DOE's evaluation of private and local fleet roles; 2) CMAQ's support of AFV programs; 3) how to buy time; 4) the latest transit bus results; 5) an ethanol refueling handbook; 6) heavy duty manufacturers; 7) natural gas composition and vehicles; 8) Chrysler's discontinuation of NGV production for model year 1997; 9) Ford's continuation of AFV lineup with reduces prices; 10) Clean Cities in the air; 11) a House of Representatives natural gas vehicle task force; 12) the House Renewable Energy Caucus; 12) an alternative fuel vehicle incentive bill in Arizona; 13) ethanol Windstars; 14) and the use of alternative fuel vehicles at the Olympics.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 5, No. 3 1/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) natural gas vehicles; 2) liquefied natural gas use in the Airgas, Inc. heavy-duty truck fleet; 3) the learning curve in LNG alternative fuel trucks; and 4) Christine Ervin's speech at the 14th National Natural Gas Vehicle Conference in Dallas, Texas.

Clean Cities Drive, Vol. 4, No. 1 5/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the Clean Cities Stakeholders' Conference and Expo; 2) Clean Cities corridors; 3) Raley's Supermarket's addition of a fueling station and LNG trucks to their fleet; 4) EV Market Launch workshops in New York, Richmond, Boston, and Atlanta; 5) DOE's comments on a proposed private and municipal fleet ruling; 6) new Clean Cities; 7) Dan Deaton; 8) a Clean Cities regional meeting that focused on corridors; and 9) a calendar of events.

Tiger Teams Provide Coalitions Technical and Market Assistance 5/1/2003 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities Technical Assistance (Tiger Teams) projects, both completed and ongoing.

UPS CNG Truck Fleet Final Data Report DOE/NREL Truck Evaluation Project 10/1/2001 Reports

Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43201-2693

This is the final data report for the United Parcel Service compressed natural gas (CNG) truck fleet evaluation project in which selected Freightliner CNG delivery vehicles were evaluated as part of the DOE/NREL study. The plan for this evaluation was to test up to 15 CNG package cars and three diesel package cars operating in the Hartford, Connecticut, area from UPS's Waterbury, Hartford, and Windsor facilities. The trucks were all Freighliner Custom Chassis built with Cummins engines. The diesel vehicles had B5.9 engines, and the CNG vehicles had B5.9G engines. The data collection for the DOE/NREL program required a minimum of 12 months of operations data. Based on the age of the CNG and diesel package vehicles (model year 1997) and UPS's extensive data tracking system, the actual evaluation provided here was chosen to be a two-year data evaluation period.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 6, No. 1) 5/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) EPA's redesign of conversion certification policies; 2) the introduction of an NGV incentive Bill in Congress; 3) the introduction of the Boxer Bill in Congress; 4) New Jersey transit's expanded refueling infrastructure; 5) a Sacramento group's efforts to increase awareness of EV benefits; 6) testing of hybrid electric buses by a New York R&D group; 7) the use of heavy-duty LNG vehicles at the L.A. Airport and USPS; 8) the introduction of a medium-duty NGV by DOE and USPS; 9) NGVC's council to support LNG; 10) EV charging sites in Arizona; 11) a fuel company's purchase of natural gas refueling stations; 12) the reduced cost of methanol in California; 13) heavy-duty alternatives from OEMs and rebuilders; 14) Chrysler's announcement of an E-85 minivan and gasoline-powered fuel cell; 15) Ford's provision of 15 E85 minivans for use in state and USPS fleets; 16) GM's announcement of CNG options in Sierra and C-Series pickup trucks; 17) DOE funding; 18) a Virginia company's CNG helicopters; 19) Clean Cities' addition of the first two Ohio cities; 20) the future of CNG in Philadelphia; and 21) the Clean Cities conference.

An Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Denholm, P.; Short, W. 10/1/2006 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Hybrid electric vehicles with the capacity of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additinoal electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 5, No. 2 12/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the development of an interstate clean transportation corridor; 2) a Congressional task force that is addressing natural gas vehicle R&D concerns; 3) a midwest ethanol demonstration project; 4) Caterpillar's introduction of new dual-fuel engines; 5) a report on gas composition issues for natural gas vehicles and fueling stations; 6) NGVC's testimony before the House Oversight and Investigation Committee; and 7) DOE's Biodiesel Research and Development Program's search for industry partnerships in the heavy-duty sector.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, No. 4) 2/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) Clinton's issuance of an Executive Order on alternative fuels; 2) passage of the Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 through Congress; 3) The introduction of an NGV incentives package by the House Natural Gas Vehicle Task Force; 4) a New York bond act for clean fuel programs; 5) California's veto of an AFV incentive; 6) a "Stealth Bus" in Los Angeles; 7) Ashland Chemical, Inc.'s switch to M85 Ford Tauruses in its fleet; 8) New York City's increasing use of alternative fuels; 9) Iowa DOT's blend of biodiesel in heavy-duty vehicles; 10) King County, Washington's use of natural gas in police fleets; 11) heavy-duty trucks on ethanol; 12) UPS's plans to double its NGV fleet by 1998; 13) EV charging sites in Arizona; 14) changes at the National Biodiesel Board; 15) alternative fuel refueling sites on the Web; 16) the U.S. Postal Service and the DOE's plans to introduce a CNG mail truck; 17) Clean Cities; 18) Honda's announcement of a natural gas Civic; 19) the rise of alternative fuel bus purchases; 20) Ford Motor Company's AFV rebates; 21) natural gas testing in U.S. Volvos; 22) the introduction of EV1s; 23) Nissan's use of lithium-ion in its electric vehicles; and 24) plans for cleaner off-road engines.

Model Year 2006: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Alternative Fuels Data Center. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This document provides facts and figures for all model year 2006 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles (including hybrid electric cars) available to fleet buyers and the general public.

Evaluating the Safety of a Natural Gas Home Refueling Appliance (HRA) 4/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

This project evaluated the probability of safety incidents related to use of FuelMaker Corporation's natural gas home refueling appliance, Phill. The results indicate that an individual is 10 times more likely to be struck by lightning than to experience a safety incident resulting from normal use of Phill. The safety evaluation produced an added benefit—FuelMaker incorporated suggestions from the study into its final design of Phill. Home refueling has the potential to increase the availability and convenience of natural gas vehicle refueling infrastructure. It is anticipated that this would lead to more extensive use of natural gas vehicles, resulting in reduced U.S. petroleum consumption.

Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys 4/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet examines the use of propane hybrid electric trolleys by Knoxville Area Transit (KAT) on its Red Line Route.

Clean Energy-Environment Guide to Action: Policies, Best Practices, and Action Steps for States 2/1/2006 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Across the U.S., states are using clean energy policies to help meet their expanding energy demand in a clean, low-cost, reliable manner. In addition, a growing number of states are interested in learning about successful clean energy strategies and their economic and environmental benefits. This report is designed to share the experiences and lessons learned from successful state clean energy policies and help states evaluate these options, programs, and policies to determine what is most appropriate for them. The Guide to Action describes 16 clean energy policies and details the best practices.

Notes: Users should go to Important Publication Information for download options.

The Energy Policy Act of 2005: What the Energy Bill Means to You 4/6/2006

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), signed by President Bush on August 8, 2005, offers consumers and businesses federal tax credits beginning in January 2006 for purchasing fuel-efficient hybrid-electric vehicles and energy-efficient appliances and products. Most of these tax credits remain in effect through 2007. Buying and driving a fuel-efficient vehicle and purchasing and installing energy-efficient appliances and products provide many benefits such as better gas mileage, meaning lower gasoline costs, fewer emissions, lower energy bills, increased indoor comfort, and reduced air pollution. Some consumers will also be eligible for utility or state rebates, as well as state tax incentives for energy-efficient homes, vehicles and equipment.

Funding Opportunities: A Directory of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Environmental Protection Assistance Programs 2/1/2006 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

This publication is a directory of financial and technical assistance opportunities available from the Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, state governments, and private foundations for programs and projects that reduce energy costs, improve air quality and public health, and enhance economic development opportunities for businesses and consumers. The book is divided into three sections: Grants-at-a-Glance organized by topic; Funding Opportunities describes each grant in detail; For More Information provides links to federal on-line resources.

VTA, SamTrans Look into Future with Bus Demo 9/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides information about the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) Zero-Emission Bus Program. VTA is currently collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program to evaluate the performance of three fuel cell transit buses developed by Ballard Power Systems and Gillig Corporation.

Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst Reppert, T.; Chiu, J. 9/1/2005 Reports

Mack Trucks, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania; Southwest Research Institute. San Antonio, Texas

NREL and the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) through separate agreements are funding a program with Mack Trucks Inc. to develop the next generation heavy-duty natural gas engine to be installed in a refuse hauler. Mack and Southwest Research Institute developed the E7G 12-liter lean burn natural gas engine to operate with stoichiometric (chemically correct) combustion and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). This engine was coupled to a three-way catalyst for reducing emissions. The objective of the project is to develop a natural gas engine with nitrogen oxide (NO<sub>x</sub>) and particulate matter (PM) emissions of 0.5 g/bhp-hr and 0.01 g/bhp-hr respectively with the use of a three-way catalyst.

Credit for New Qualified Alternative Motor Vehicles (Advanced Lean Burn Technology Motor Vehicles and Qualified Hybrid Motor Vehicles) 1/13/2006 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Internal Revenue Service, Washington, D.C.

<p>On January 13, 2006, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issued guidance regarding the tax credits for light-duty (less than 8,500 lbs. GVWR) lean-burn and hybrid electric vehicles. The guidance establishes the procedures that manufacturers must use to certify that their vehicles qualify for the tax credit. The IRS plans to issue additional guidance at a later date to address procedures for qualifying alternative fuel vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and heavy-duty hybrid vehicles.</p><p>The guidance provides procedures whereby a manufacturer may certify to the IRS that its vehicles qualify for the tax credits enacted in EPAct 2005. The guidance also provides procedures for reporting on the total number of qualifying vehicles that have been sold. Upon receiving the required information, the IRS will issue an acknowledgement. A manufacturer that has submitted the proper certification and received an acknowledgement from the IRS may then certify to customers/puchasers that the vehicles qualify for tax credits. For taxpayers to claim the credit, they must place the vehicle in service after December 31, 2005. The taxpayer also must be the original user of the vehicle (first purchaser or lessee) and the vehicle must be predominately used in the U.S.</p>

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. 8/1/2005 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

This study was a joint effort between the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate the use of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel in combination with passive catalytic regenerative particle filters in real-world service and characterize regulated and unregulated exhaust pollutant emissions from GTL fuel in comparison to petroleum-derived diesel fuel.

Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses Melendez, M.; Taylor, J.; Zuboy, J.; Wayne, W.S.; Smith, D. 12/1/2005 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado;West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

In 2004, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory led an evaluation of the emissions of transit buses operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). The goal of this project was to evaluate the emissions of natural gas transit buses and the improving baseline emissions of comparable diesel buses with advanced emission control technologies. The buses were tested for numerous regulated and unregulated emissions, including hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter, and various toxic emissions. The analysis demonstrated the emissions advantage of CNG buses as well as promising fuel economy results for the CNG buses compared with the diesel buses.

Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics Welch, Cory 2/1/2006 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Much attention has been given to the use of hydrogen as an alternative transportation fuel, but hydrogen was certainly not the first fuel considered as an alternative to gasoline for transportation applications. Options ranging from all-electric vehicles to those running on natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel have also received both industry and government attention. Unfortunately, previous government efforts to encourage widespread adoption of alternative fuel vehicles have been largely unsuccessful. The National Academy of Engineering suggested that 'DOE might have its greatest impact by leading the private economy toward transition strategies rather than to ultimate visions of an energy infrastructure markedly different from the one now in place.'</p><p>This report focuses on understanding how analytical system modeling coupled with actual data from previous alternative-fuel experiences could improve our understanding of the dynamic forces governing the transition to an alternative-fueled vehicle system.

Analysis of Coconut-Derived Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel Fuel Samples from the Philippines Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L. 1/1/2006 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

New York City Transit Drives Hybrid Electric Buses Into the Future 4/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

The Metropolitan Transit Authority' York City Transit (NYCT) is the largest public transportation system in the United States and a leader in the use of clean bus technologies. NYCT launched a pilot fleet of hybrid electric buses in 1998. A larger fleet of next-generation production hybrid electric buses began entering service in 2004. The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) evaluated NYCT's pilot fleet and is evaluating the production buses. This report provides an update on the evaluation of NYCT's production hybrid electric buses and reviews the evolution of hybrid electric bus technologies pioneered by NYCT and other progressive transit agencies.

Natural Gas Transit Users Group: Assisting Transit Agencies with Natural Gas Bus Technologies 4/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

Transit buses are a key niche market for natural gas vehicles. Increasingly, transit agencies have been choosing natural gas buses as a way to cut air pollution and boost energy security. The Natural Gas Transit Users Group provides information and assistance to transit agencies that are operating or considering acquisition of natural gas transit buses. It is anticipated that this will lead to increased use of natural gas buses, resulting in reduced U.S. petroleum consumption.

Alternative Fuel Driver Training Companion Manual 9/1/2005 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

In the summer of 2004, EPAct and Clean Cities worked together to develop a course to teach trainers how to educate fleet drivers on the use of alternative fuels and vehicles. This manual features the information presented in the classes, including the safe use of four alternative fuels: biodiesel, compressed natural gas, (CNG), E85, (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), and propane.

The Harmful Effects of Vehicle Exhaust: A Case for Policy Change Wargo, J.; Wargo, L.; Alderman, N; Brown, D. R. 1/1/2006 Reports

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; none; Environment and Human Health, Inc., North Haven, Connecticut

Most people assume that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is sufficiently protecting air quality by setting limits for chemicals released from vehicles, requiring newer engines to be less polluting, and restricting levels normally found in outdoor air. While the government monitors pollutants at fixed stations, these measurements bear little resemblance to the pollutiuon you and your family experience while moving through daily life. This report examines a variety of harmful effects from air pollution, including that caused by vehicle exhaust. The report focuses on Connecticut.

King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results Chandler, K., Walkowicz, K. 4/1/2006 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is an interim technical report comparing and evaluating new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit fleet in Seattle, Washington. This report covers the first six months of a planned 12-month evaluation.

Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A. 1/1/2006

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

The analysis done in fiscal year (FY) 2005 built upon the FY 2004 work described in the March 2005 report, Analysis of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Needed to Enable Commercial Introduction of Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicles1. The FY 2005 project: Identified existing hydrogen production facilities and alternative fuel stations; Identified highway traffic volumes throughout the U.S. interstate system; Selected specific north/south and east/west routes as a focus for the project; Incorporated existing hydrogen production facilities, hydrogen and natural gas fueling stations, railroads, traffic volume, and county population data; Placed stations on the U.S. interstate network according to population density and station distances; and identified a significant potential to co-locate refueling with federal government partners. In FY 2005, analysis focused on using the basic refueling station network proposed in FY 2004 to evaluate various scenarios for transition. These strategies and analyses are described in this report.

RTD Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: Interim Review Summary Proc, K.; Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R.L. 8/1/2005 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with the Regional Transportation District (RTD) of Denver, Blue Sun Biodiesel, and Power Service Products to evaluate the in-use performance of buses operating on B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% conventional diesel fuel). Nine mechanically identical 40-foot transit buses (five operated on B20, four on conventional diesel) are being compared over the same duty cycle, the 'Skip' route in Boulder, Colorado. In addition, laboratory tests compared the buses for fuel economy and emissions. This report summarizes the interim results for the period August 2004 through February 2005.

Biomethane from Dairy Waste: A Sourcebook for the Production and Use of Renewable Natural Gas in California Krich, K.; Augenstein, D.; Batmale, J.P.; Benemann, J.; Rutledge, B.; Salour, D.; Wright, J., Lyles Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, California State University, Fresno, CA 7/1/2005 Reports

Sustainable Conservation, San Francisco, CA; Institute for Environmental Management, Inc., Palo Alto, CA; Great Valley Center, Modesto, CA; Institute for Environmental Management, Inc., Palo Alto, CA; WestStart-CalStart, Pasadena, CA; RCM Digesters, Inc., Berkeley, CA;

This report examines the feasibility of producing biomethane from dairy manure. We investigated a number of possible technologies for producing renewable forms of energy and fuel from dairy wastes as well as applications and markets for these products. Although some of the applications proved to be technically or economically infeasible at this time, we believe that the information gathered could prove useful for other investigators or future studies. With this in mind, we designed this sourcebook for readers and investigators interested in exploring alternate uses of biogas created from dairy wastes.

Alternative Fuels Commercialization in Support of the 2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report California Energy Commission Staff 5/1/2005 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA

California's demand for transportation fuels has increased 53 percent in the last 20 years and in the next 20 years, gasoline and diesel demand will increase another 36 percent. California refineries rely increasingly on imported petroleum products to meet this demand. In 2003, the California Energy Commission and the California Air Resources Board adopted a two-pronged strategy to reduce petroleum demand: promoting improved vehicle efficiency, and increasing use of alternative fuels. This report discusses those alternative fuels used in transportation, including biodiesel, electricity, ethanol, gas to liquid fuels, hydrogen, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), and natural gas.

The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program: Assessing 10 Years of Experience 6/1/2002 Reports

Transportation Research Board, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.

The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) program was enacted as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 and reauthorized by the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) of 1998. After nearly a decade of the program's operation, congressional sponsors were interested in knowing whether it has been effective and whether its projects were cost-effective relative to other strategies for reducing pollution and congestion. Their questions were summarized in a request to the National Academy of Sciences for a study to evaluate the CMAQ program.

Notes: Book available for sale.

Franklin County Sanitary Landfill - Landfill Gas (LFG) to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Project 1/1/2005 Reports

Edwards and Kelcey. Morristown, New Jersey

This report examines the Franklin County, Ohio project to convert landfill gas (LFG) to liquefied natural gas (LNG) for use by alternative fuel vehicles in Central Ohio Clean Fuels Coalition (COCFC) fleets.

Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Data Report Chandler, K.; Proc, K. 2/1/2005 Reports

Battelle. Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

<p>This final data report provides detailed data and analyses related to the report <a href=>Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results</a>, published in July of 2004. It should be used in conjunction with the descriptions, analysis, and conclusions presented in the above-referenced final report to give a complete picture of the evaluation. The detailed data and analyses are divided into four sections:</p><ul><li><b>Vehicle Systems Descriptions:</b> This section lists the trucks involved in the Norcal evaluation and gives detailed descriptions of the equipment included in the LNG trucks.</li> <li><b>Vehicle Use by Study Group:</b> This section provides a detailed summary of truck use for each of the three truck study groups (LNG, new diesel, and old diesel); these detailed data support the data in the final report, Figure 10 (page 13).</li> <li><b>Fuel Consumption and Fuel Economy:</b> This section provides monthly summaries of fuel consumption and fuel economy by truck and by group for each of the three truck study groups (LNG, new diesel, and old diesel).</li> <li><b>Maintenance Summary:</b> This section provides monthly summaries of maintenance costs by truck and by group for each of two study groups (LNG and new diesel); maintenance costs were not studied for the old diesel trucks.</li></ul>

Results of Combustion and Emissions Testing when Co-Firing Blends of Binder-Enhanced Densified Refuse-Derived Fuel (b-dRDF) Pellets and Coal in a 440 MW, Cyclone Fired Combustor Ohlsson, 0.,; (Argon National Laboratory); National Renewable Energy Laboratory 7/30/1994 Reports

This research project characterized the effects o f burning a combination of binder-enhanced densified refusederived fuel (b-dRDF1 pellets and coal in a commercial-scale electrical generating facility. Pelletized b-dRDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of Jess than 3% in large utility systems. This research investigated using b-dRDF in quantities up t o 20%. Through this research, project participants gained operating, technical, and economic viability data that will be critical for the near-term commercial use of b-dRDF.

Notes: This report contains the test data from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a MO-MW, cyclone- fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Otter Tail Power Company; Green Isle Environmental, Inc.; XL Recycling Corporation; and Marblehead Lime Company. The report. is made up of three volumes. Volume 1 contahs a description of the test facility, the test program, test results, and study conclusions and recommendations; Volume 2 contains the field data and laboratory analysis of each individual run. Volume 3 contains other supporting information, quality assurance documentation, and safety and test plans. This multi-volume approach enables readers to find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results Chandler, K.;Eberts, E.;Eudy, L. 1/2/2006 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, Colorado

This report focuses on compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel hybrid electric bus propulsion systems in New York City Transit buses. Both of these propulsion systems are alternatives to standard diesel buses and allow for reductions in petroleum use and emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen). CNG propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel use, and diesel hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which, in turn, is a reduction in petroleum use.

Strategy for the Integration of Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel into the Existing Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure of the Interstate Clean Transportation Corridor Project (April 22, 2004 - August 31, 2005) 9/1/2005 Reports

Gladstein, Neandross & Associates. Santa Monica, CA

The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the esisting vehicle stock and fueling infrastructure of the Interstate Clean Transportation Corridor (ICTC) can help form the foundation for the development of the 'hydrogen highway' that many policy makers and stakeholders are interested in creating. This paper evaluates the potential for 'piggy-backing' early hydrogen production, dispensing, and consumption onto the already successfully deployed natural gas vehicle projects pioneered by the ICTC.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report Laughlin, M.D. 2/1/2006 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

<p>The February 2006 Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report is a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders in January and February 2006, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 illustrates that all of the alternative fuels (with the exception of biodiesel) are lower in price than conventional fuels on a per-gallon basis. Relative to the last report from September 2005, the average prices for all of the fuels included in this price report have dropped in price by as much as 50 cents.

Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority: Compressed Natural Gas Transit Bus Evaluation K.Chandler; E.Eberts; M.Melendez 4/1/2006 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The objective of this report is to provide a reasonable comparison between currently available compressed natural gas and standard diesel transit buses. The report includes operational, maintenance, and performance data for each study fleet operating from the same depot. The evaluation was conducted in 2004. Transit agencies considering use of alternative fuel and advanced propulsion technology transit buses are the primary audience for this information.

Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender: A Literature Review Jones, S.; Peterson C.L. 9/22/2002 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Idaho. Moscow, Idaho

This paper is a review of literature concerning using vegetable oils as a replacement for diesel fuel. The term vegetable oils as used in this paper refers to vegetable oils which have not been modified by transesterification or similar processes to form what is called biodiesel. The oils studied include virgin and used oils of various types including soy, rapeseed, canola, sunflower, cottonseed and similar oils. In general, raw vegetable oils can be used successfully in short term performance tests in nearly any percentage as a replacement for diesel fuel. When tested in long term tests blends above 20 percent nearly always result in engine damage or maintenance problems. Some authors report success in using vegetable oils as diesel fuel extenders in blends less than 20 percent even in long term durability studies. Degumming is suggested by one author as a way to improve use of raw oils in low level blends.

Alternative Fuel Trucks Case Studies - The Archer Daniels Midland Experience Norton, P.;Kelly, K. J.;Marek, N. J. 10/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs

This case study looks at operating refuse trucks on compressed natural gas (CNG). It covers fuel economy and range, cost, maintenance and repair issues, emissions, and lessons learned from a NYC demonstration project.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 3 1/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) a debate over the LNG tax rate ruling; 2) incentives for clean HD engines; 3) LNG demonstration programs; 4) Cummins announcement of a new natural gas engine.

Alternative Fuel Light-Duty Vehicles: Summary of Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Evaluation Data Collection Efforts Whalen, P.;Kelly, K.;Motta, R.;Broderick, J. 5/1/1996 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a data collection project for light-duty, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) for about 4 years. The project has collected data on 10 vehicle models (from the original equipment manufacturers [OEM]), spanning model years 1991 through 1995. Emissions data have also been collected from a number of vehicles that were converted to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas. Most of the vehicles involved in the data collection and evaluation are part of the General Services Administrations's fleet of AFVs. This evaluation effort addressed the performance and reliability, fuel economy, and emissions of light-duty AFVs, with comparisons to similar gasoline vehicles when possible. This report includes results from emissions testing completed on 169 AFVs and 161 gasoline control vehicles. Alcohol vehicles in general indicated equivalent or lower regulated emissions compared to reformulated gasoline. CNG vehicles did show significantly lower emissions than gasoline vehicles. Preliminary emissions results from vehicles that have undergone aftermarket conversion are not as promising as for OEM AFVs. Conversion emissions in many cases were higher than the vehicle emissions were before conversion.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 4, Iss. 4) 3/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: NREL Research Improved Technologies, AFV's Combat Smog, DOE Funds Testing of Natural Gas Vehicle, Hotline Assists Callers, More EV's in Federal Fleet, California Air Resources Board May Ease Requirements

Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program Motta, R.;Norton, P.;Kelly, K.;Chandler, K.;Schumacher, L.;Clark, N. 10/1/1996 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;Battelle, Columbus, OH;Univ. of Missouri;West Virginia Univ.

Transit buses represent one of the best applications for alternative fuels, which have already made significant inroads into the transit bus market. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, initiated a program to study the performance, reliability, costs, and emissions of alternative fuel transit buses versus conventional diesel buses (controls). This report comprehensively and objectively evaluates the reliability, operating costs, and emissions levels of all alternative fuels currently in use in the transit bus industry.

Life-Cycle Costs of Alternative Fuels: Is Biodiesel Cost Competitive for Urban Buses? Ahouissoussi, N. B. C.;Wetzstein, M. E. 11/1/1995 Reports

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC

The purpose of this paper is to provide an expected cost comparison for operating a transit-bus fleet on three different alternative fuels - biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG) and mathanol. Petroleum diesel is the base fuel. Infrastructure, refueling, and maintenance costs are all part of running an urban transit bus. Additional expenditures would be needed to change fuel storage and delivery systems, as well as bus engines and fuel systems, to use methanol or CNG. Using a 5-percent discount rate, the present value per bus mile was calculated for the total cost (the sum of infrastructure, bus-alteration, refueling, and maintenance expenses) of a transit fleet over the estimated 30-year life cycle of a refueling infrastructure. Not surprisingly, diesel buses had the lowest cost at 24.7 cents per mile. As biodiesel is blended with diesel, the cost per mile ranged from 27.9 to 47.5 cents, depending on the amount of biodiesel used and its estimated price. CNG's cost varied from 37.5 to 42 cents per mile, while methanol's cost was 73.6 cents per mile. This analysis indicates that, although biodiesel and biodiesel blends have higher total costs than diesel fuel, they have the potential to compete with CNG and methanol as fuels for urban transit buses.

CleanFleet Final Report: Executive Summary 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 "control" vans operating on regular gasoline. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet's 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

Clean Cities Drive - Spring 1996 (Vol. 3, No. 2) 4/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) technical and training centers for skilled mechanics; 2) new training standards; 3) the promotion of AFVs by stakeholders; 4) Ford's first light-duty propane vehicle; 5) Clean Cities updates; and 6) a calendar of events.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 1) 4/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) NREL testing conversions; 2) a new AFV acquisition rule for fleets; 3) federal fleets; 4) students helping to design better cars; 5) the release of training center standards; and 6) new AFVs on the market.

Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority: Biodiesel Fuel Comparison Final Data Report Donald W. Lyons 8/15/2002 Reports

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

The West Virginia University measured the exhaust emissions from a Flxible Transit bus with a 1990 Cummins L10 engine operated on standard federal type-1 deisel fuel (D1), ultra-low sulfur type-1 diesel fuel (ULSD1) and on a blend of 20% biodiesel and 80% ULSD1 fuel (BD20). During the ULSD1 and BD20 tests the transit bus was equipped with an Engelhard DPX catalyzed particulate filter. The vehicle was exercised over a chassis dynamometer test cycle that was developed from data logged from WMATA buses during normal passenger service in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area. All measurements were made in accordance with the guidelines set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations CFR40 Part 86 Subpart N.

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S. 11/1/2005 Reports

SunLine Services Group, Thousand Palms, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Hydrogen Components Inc., Littleton, Colorado; Westport Innovations Inc. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

One approach being put forth for the advancement of hydrogen fueled vehicles is to blend hydrogen with compressed natural gas (H/CNG) for use in state-of-the-art internal combustion engine vehicles. Current natural gas engines and vehicles can be modified to operate on H/CNG with available technology. This report reviews a small-scale study of this concept. The project demonstrated that with minor engine and vehicle modifications, the 20/80 hydrogen/CNG blend can be used in revenue service fleets with similar operational performance as CNG. However, additional optimization of the H/CNG engine calibration is necessary to attain equivalent fuel economy, or alternatively increased fuel economy at equivalent NOx emissions.

Coating Systems for NGV Composite Cylinders - Final Report 9/1/1994 Reports

Gas Research Inst.

This report documents an investigation of acid-resistant coating systems that can be applied to composite storage cylinders used on natural gas vehicles. Two recent tank failures were likely caused by stress corrosion cracking of the composite overwrap. Cracking was probably induced by acidic compounds (battery acid) in direct contact with the cylinder's fiber reinforced plastic overwrap. A literature search, discussions with cylinder manufacturers, and laboratory materials studies were performed to identify potential coatings. This investigation also identified relevant test procedures for environmental and materials evaluations. SEM measurements identified microcracks induced by stress corrosion. Laboratory testing included acid immersion tests of coated and uncoated specimens on E-glass/epoxy and E-glass/polyester substrates, as well as physical and mechanical characterization of exposed and control samples. Full scale cylinders, both coated and uncoated were also tested by exposing a segment of each cylinder to a concentrated acidic solution. Both preliminary laboratory and full scale results indicated that the preferred coating materials (in order of resistance) were neoprene rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, polyurethane coatings, and epoxy and polyester coatings, based on resistance to degradation of the composite materials and cylinders.

ASE Certification for Light/Medium Duty CNG/LPG Training Programs 1/1/1995 Reports

National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA

This report covers policies, procedures, and program standards for ASE certification. It includes task lists, tools and equipment, self-evaluation guidelines for initial certification and recertification, and forms for initial and re-certification.

ASE Program Certification Standards - Light/Medium Duty CNG/LPG 11/1/1995 Reports

National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA

This booklet is intended to provide entry level automotive technicians an understanding of the industry. It covers policies, procedures, program standards, task lists, and tools and equipment.

Profile and Segmentation of Medium and Heavy Vehicle Purchse Patterns and Current and Projected Populations - Final Report 2/1/1995 Reports

Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL

This report profiles the commercial truck and school bus population and key operating characteristics. The purpose was to identify present fuel consumption patterns and projected natural gas usage patterns five and eight years out. There are three key variables: number of vehicles, average annual miles, and miles per gallon. A survey of nearly 3,000 commercial truck users which probe usages and attitudes towards alternative fuels was utilized to develop a projection of natural gas fueled commercial trucks in the years 2000 and 2003 and of natural gas fuel usage. MacKay & Company projects that there will be approximately 110,000 natural gas commercial trucks in operation in the year 2000 and as many as 153,000 by the year 2003. Natural gas consumption is projected at 22,552 miliion cubic feet in 2000; class 6-7 vehicles will consume 42% of the total.

Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 11/21/1995

Current Status of Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues of Lithium Ion Electric Vehicle Batteries Vimmerstedt, L.J.;Ring, S.;Hammel, C.J. 9/1/1995 Reports

Lithium ion batteries are mid- to long-term candidates for propelling electric vehicles. In theory, lithium-based batteries can achieve a higher energy density than systems using other elements. In addition, the lithium ion system is less reactive and more relieable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. Understanding the environmental, health, and safety issues associated with these batteries is an important step toward their commercialization. Analysts at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory studied these issues, and their finds are presented in this report. They reviewed a system that uses lithium intercalation compounds for the positive and negative electrodes and an organic liquid and a lithium salt for the electrolyte. The study considered call chemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Some possible lithium ion battery materials were found to be toxic or carcinogenic. The report recommends further research on the hazards of possible chemical reactions in lithium ion batteries. However, the report states that cells and batteries designed to be reliable and durable will likely mitigate material hazards as well. Analysis suggest that minimizing waste during manufacturing and at the end of the battery life could reduce the burden of environmental compliance. In addition, they discuss various regulatory options for shipping lithium ion batteries.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 2 10/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) heavy-duty trucks accelerating the growth of the American alternative transportation fuels market and 2) the U.S. Department of Energy alternative fuel heavy-duty vehicle program.

Development of a Dedicated Ethanol Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) - Phase 2 Report Dodge, L. G.;Bourn, G.;Callahan, T. J.;Naegeli, D. W.;Shouse, K. R.;Smith, L. R.;Whitney, K. A. 9/1/1995 Reports

Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX

The objective of this 3.5-year project was to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol that can meet California ULEV standards and equivalent corporate average fuel economy energy efficiency for a light-duty passenger car application. This report summarizes the second phase of this project, which lasted 12 months. It documents two baseline vehicles, the engine modifications to the original equipment manufacturer engines, advanced aftertreatment testing, and various fuel tests to evaluate the flammability, lubricity, and material compatibility of the ethanol fuel blends.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 5, No. 4 6/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

Perspectives on AFVs: 1996 Federal Fleet Manager Survey 7/1/1997 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of fleet managers.

Comparison of CNG and LNG Technologies for Transportation Applications: Final Subcontract Report, June 1991 - December 1991 Sinor, J. E. 1/1/1992 Reports

J. E. Sinor Consultants, Niwot, CO; National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

Potential Impacts on Air Quality of the Use of Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel Gaffney, J.S.;Marley, N.A. 9/1/1994

Argonne National Laboratory;Environmental Research Division;Argonne, IL

This study consisted of field tests to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using ethanol-gasoline blends to fuel motor vehicles. Researchers took ambient air measurements at a centrally located site in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the summer of 1993 and the winter of 1994 for comparative analysis. Researchers also measured wind speed, wind direction, ozone, nitric oxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, aldehydes, organic acids, daytime temperature, and ultraviolet-B radiation by using a wide array of analytical instrumentation. The results of the measurement studies are discussed and analyzed with regard to the potential primary emissions of acetaldehyde from ethanol in the fuel mixture. This report also assesses the potential for using carbon isotopic analysis to determine the relative roles of various sources of hydrocarbons (natural versus anthropogenic) and proposes this method as a means of better estimating the relative impacts of ethanol fuel usage on urban air quality.

The Ethanol Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Demonstration Project 5/1/1997 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO; Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs, Springfield, IL

This report presents the results of an ethanol heavy-duty truck demonstration project. The four trucks were equipped with specially modified Detroit Diesel Corporation engines and ran on E95 (95% ethanol and 5% light hydrocarbon denaturant). They were owned and operated by Archer Daniels Midland Trucking, Incorporated, and were used almost every day for deliveries to points in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was recorded, for the first time, on the performance, durability, economics, and emissions of heavy-duty trucks running on ethanol.

Mack LNG Vehicle Development 1/1/2000 Reports

Southwest Research Institute

The goal of this project was to install a production-ready state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99 percent methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

CMAQ Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program - Innovations in Transportation & Air Quality: Twelve Exemplary Projects 4/1/1996 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC

The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) program has been a hallmark of innovation and flexibility under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). By targeting transportation funding to air quality improvement, it is also unique. The CMAQ program has transferred a far greater percentage of funds to transit improvements than any other "flexible funding" program in ISTEA. In addition, the CMAQ program has created opportunities to build new partnerships in the public and private sectors. This brochure highlights several exemplary projects that received CMAQ funds. These projects provide a range of benefits in addition to improved air quality and mobility.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 1, Iss. 2) 5/1/1992 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) new data bases in the AFDC; 2) the current status of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) light-duty fleet; 3) legislation issues; and 4) news from around the country

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 1, Iss. 4) 11/1/1992 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the significant expansion of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in federal fleets; 2) the first U.S. ethanol bus program; 3) a study on compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); 4) new CNG packer trucks in New York; 5) federal agency plans to change fleets to alternative fuels; 6) DOE's heavy-duty alternative-fuel demonstration program; 7) NREL/DOE plans to support data collection on school buses; and 8) the Congressional passage of the National Energy Strategy.

An Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G. 10/1/2008 Reports

Nexum Research Corporation, Mallorytown, Canada

An experimental and modeling study was done to determine the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level. Samples in small, closed chambers were tested simultaneously in a cold chamber to determine flammability and pressure rise when ignited by a strong electric spark. Gasoline and E85 fuels were flammable below a critical temperature; above it, the vapor was too rich to burn. Denatured ethanol was flammable at room temperature and colder, down to a critical temperature; below it, the vapor was too lean to burn. The flammability limit temperature of the E85 and gasoline fuels related to the dry vapor pressure equivalent (DVPE), but DVPE did not reliably rank the low-temperature flammability hazards of fuel tank headspace vapors when conventional gasolines were compared with alcohol blends.

Impacts of Alternative Fuels on Air Quality Taylor, P. H.;Dellinger, B. 6/1/1994 Reports

Univ. of Dayton Research Center, Environmental Science and Engineering Group, Dayton, OH - National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

The objective of this project was to determine the impact of alternative fuels on air quality, particularly ozone formation. The alternative fuels of interest are methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. During the first year of study, researchers obtained qualitative data on the thermal degradation products from the fuel-lean (oxidative), stoichiometric, and fuel-rich (pyrolytic) decomposition of methanol and ethanol. The thermal degradation of ethanol produced a substantially larger number of intermediate organic by-products than the similar thermal degradation of methanol, and the organic intermediate by-products lacked stability. Also, a qualitative comparison of the UDRI flow reactor data with previous engine test showed that, for methanol, formaldehyde and acetone were the organic by-products observed in both types of tests; for ethanol, only very limited data were located.

Biodiesel Production Technology Van Gerpen, J.; B. Shanks, R. Pruszko (Iowa State University; D. Clements (Renewable Products Development Laboratory; G. Knothe (USDA/NCAUR ) 7/31/2004 Reports

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is gaining attention in the United States after reaching a considerable level of success in Europe. Its primary advantages are that it is one of the most renewable fuels currently available and it is also non-toxic and biodegradable. It can also be used directly in most diesel engines without requiring extensive engine modifications. The purpose of this book is to describe and explain the processes and issues involved in producing this new fuel.

Issues Associated with the Use of Higher Ethanol Blends (E17-E24) Hammel-Smith, C.; J. Fang, M. Powders, J. Aabakken 10/1/2002 Reports

This report reviews the issues associated with utilizing higher ethanol blends (E17-E24), and is intended to advise the Department of Energy (DOE) on factors that might encourage or constrain the integration of such blends into the marketplace. Subjects include technical vehicle issues, emissions and emissions testing, infrastructure, market issues, and regulatory and policy considerations.

Fuel Cells for Transportation: 2001 Annual Progress Report 12/1/2001 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies, Washington, D.C.

This report provides an overview of the nature, objectives, progress, and future direction of the U.S. DOE&#39;s fuel cell transportation program as of December 2001.

Advanced Technology Vehicles in Service: NORCAL Waste Systems, Inc. White, H. 12/1/2002 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet describes the liquefied natural gas (LNG) long-haul heavy-duty trucks at Norcal Waste Systems Inc.'s sanitary fill company.

FreedomCAR Partnership Plan 9/5/2002 Reports

United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

United States Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham and senior executives of DaimlerChrysler, Ford, and General Motors announced the FreedomCAR Partnership on January 9, 2002. FreedomCAR is a research initiative focused on collaborative, pre-competitive, high-risk research to develop the component technologies necessary to provide a full range of affordable cars and light trucks that will free the nation's personal transportation system for petroleum dependence and from harmful vehicle emissions, without sacrificing freedom of mobility and freedom of vehicle choice. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), representing DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation are the partners in the initiative. The partners will jointly conduct strategic planning, determine technical requirements, identify needed resources, establish research and development priorities, and execute oversight of the R&D activities necessary to achieve the goals of the partnership. In addition, the partners will jointly develop a technical roadmap that outlines the technology-specific R&D goals (including cost targets) and milestones required to demonstrate progress.

Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Best Practice Case Study: The Saunders Hotel Group of Boston - Driving Their Guests Towards a Safer Future 1/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

KeySpan Energy

The Saunders Hotel Group has been at the forefront of environmental advances in the hospitality industry for over fifteen years. The Boston-based family business, which owns and operates The Lenox and Copley Square Hotels as well as the Comfort Inn & Suites Boston/Airport, has instituted more than 90 innovative, eco-friendly programs company wide. Their pioneering efforts have demonstrated for hotels worldwide how environmental measures can build customer loyalty and employee productivity while saving hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results Whalen,P.,Kelly,K.,John,M. 5/1/1999 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compressed natural gas Crown Victoria sedans in the Barwood taxicab fleet.

Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource Guide for Project Development 7/1/2002 Reports

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC),McLean,Virginia

This report provides national and international project developers with a guide on how to estimate and document the GHG emission reduction benefits and/or penalties for battery-powered and hybrid-electric vehicle projects. This primer also provides a resource for the creation of GHG emission reduction projects for the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) Pilot Phase and in anticipation of other market based project mechanisms proposed under the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change (UNFCC). Though it will be necessary for project developers and other entities to evaluate the emission benefits of each project on a case-by-case basis, this primer will provide a guide for determining which data and information to include during the process of developing the project proposal.