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Alternative Fuel News, Volume 5 Issue 2 7/1/2001 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue of the Alternative Fuel News features articles on the National Energy Policy; the 2001 National Clean Cities Conference including Coalition Award and Partner Award recipients; station cars; and new emissions-reducing incentives in Texas.

Clean Fuels Paving the Way for America's Future: A Source for Information on Clean Burning Alternative Transportation Fuels 4/1/1995 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

With so many alternative fuels being promoted by various groups, it is important for legislators, the public and all interested parties to understand the different fuels that are available, how they are made, how they are used and their impact on the environment. This brochure is intended to help legislators at all levels to make informed decisions and for the media, with a responsibility of informing the public, to be educated on these issues. The fuels covered in this brochure include: ethanol, ethyl tertiary butyl ether, methanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether, biodiesel, gasoline additives and combustion modifiers, electric vehicles, natural gas and propane. It also summarizes regional and state clean fuel policies and regulations.

Fuel Economy Test Procedures Alternative-Fueled Automobile CAFE Incentives and Fuel Economy Labeling Requirements - Environmental Protection Agency - 40 CFR Part 600 10/1/1995 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

This final rule amends the fuel economy regulations to include alternative-fueled automobiles. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) of 1988 includes 1993 model year and later alternative-fueled automobiles (passenger automobiles and light trucks) in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program on a favorable basis to encourage the manufacture of these vehicles. The AMFA provides these CAFE "credits" for automobiles designed to be fueled with methanol, ethanol, other alcohols, natural gas, or dual-fueled automobiles designed to operate on one or more of these alternative fuels and gasoline or diesel fuel. Under the AMFA, these credits are only available for automobiles that meet certain requirements regarding: alternative fuel content (e.g., for alcohol fuels, a minimum of 85 percent by volume alcohol), energy efficiency, and driving range. Neither the AMFA nor the final rule will affect automobiles that do not meet these requirements; such vehicles would not receive the favorable CAFE treatment. Alternative-fueled automobile labeling requirements are also specified in the AMFA. This final rule codifies the requirements of the AMFA in 40 CFR part 600. Recently, AMFA was amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to extend the CAFE credit to automobiles designed to operate on additional types of alternative fuels. However, this final rule does not include these additional alternative fuel types, as they were not included in the CAFE program at the time the NPRM was published and the final rule was developed.

Notes: Text of final rule to be published in the Federal Register

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 4, Iss. 1) 4/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: clean air cabs; the successful conclusion of the CleanFleet demonstration; the release of a propane video; and the CNG tractor run by the L.A. Times.

Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs - Fourth Annual Report to Congress 7/1/1995 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC;National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 2 10/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) heavy-duty trucks accelerating the growth of the American alternative transportation fuels market and 2) the U.S. Department of Energy alternative fuel heavy-duty vehicle program.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 3) 12/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) DOE's evaluation of private and local fleet roles; 2) CMAQ's support of AFV programs; 3) how to buy time; 4) the latest transit bus results; 5) an ethanol refueling handbook; 6) heavy duty manufacturers; 7) natural gas composition and vehicles; 8) Chrysler's discontinuation of NGV production for model year 1997; 9) Ford's continuation of AFV lineup with reduces prices; 10) Clean Cities in the air; 11) a House of Representatives natural gas vehicle task force; 12) the House Renewable Energy Caucus; 12) an alternative fuel vehicle incentive bill in Arizona; 13) ethanol Windstars; 14) and the use of alternative fuel vehicles at the Olympics.

Life-Cycle Costs of Alternative Fuels: Is Biodiesel Cost Competitive for Urban Buses? Ahouissoussi, N. B. C.;Wetzstein, M. E. 11/1/1995 Reports

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC

The purpose of this paper is to provide an expected cost comparison for operating a transit-bus fleet on three different alternative fuels - biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG) and mathanol. Petroleum diesel is the base fuel. Infrastructure, refueling, and maintenance costs are all part of running an urban transit bus. Additional expenditures would be needed to change fuel storage and delivery systems, as well as bus engines and fuel systems, to use methanol or CNG. Using a 5-percent discount rate, the present value per bus mile was calculated for the total cost (the sum of infrastructure, bus-alteration, refueling, and maintenance expenses) of a transit fleet over the estimated 30-year life cycle of a refueling infrastructure. Not surprisingly, diesel buses had the lowest cost at 24.7 cents per mile. As biodiesel is blended with diesel, the cost per mile ranged from 27.9 to 47.5 cents, depending on the amount of biodiesel used and its estimated price. CNG's cost varied from 37.5 to 42 cents per mile, while methanol's cost was 73.6 cents per mile. This analysis indicates that, although biodiesel and biodiesel blends have higher total costs than diesel fuel, they have the potential to compete with CNG and methanol as fuels for urban transit buses.

CleanFleet Final Report Fuel Economy, Vol. 4 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alternative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

CleanFleet Final Report Vehicle Emissions, Vol. 7 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from CleanFleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in vehicle technology among the three vehicle manufacturers (Ford, Dodge, Chevrolet) and differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicles/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 4, Iss. 3) 1/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: AFDC One-Stop Shopping for Emissions Data, New NGV's Pass Test, Federal Express Cleans Up, Heavy-Duty Cooperation, New AFV's from Detroit, A Clean Ride to School, Propane Vehicle Challenge

Clean Cities Drive - Post Conference Issue ( Vol. 3, No. 1) 1/1/1996 Newsletters

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

This issue includes articles on the following: Clean Cities Stakeholders First Annual Conference, GRI Announces Grants for Clean Cities, Antelope Valley Schools use Creative Funding To Keep Smog in Check, New Clean Cities Designations,

Alternative Fuel Light-Duty Vehicles: Summary of Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Evaluation Data Collection Efforts Whalen, P.;Kelly, K.;Motta, R.;Broderick, J. 5/1/1996 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a data collection project for light-duty, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) for about 4 years. The project has collected data on 10 vehicle models (from the original equipment manufacturers [OEM]), spanning model years 1991 through 1995. Emissions data have also been collected from a number of vehicles that were converted to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas. Most of the vehicles involved in the data collection and evaluation are part of the General Services Administrations's fleet of AFVs. This evaluation effort addressed the performance and reliability, fuel economy, and emissions of light-duty AFVs, with comparisons to similar gasoline vehicles when possible. This report includes results from emissions testing completed on 169 AFVs and 161 gasoline control vehicles. Alcohol vehicles in general indicated equivalent or lower regulated emissions compared to reformulated gasoline. CNG vehicles did show significantly lower emissions than gasoline vehicles. Preliminary emissions results from vehicles that have undergone aftermarket conversion are not as promising as for OEM AFVs. Conversion emissions in many cases were higher than the vehicle emissions were before conversion.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 6, No. 1) 5/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) EPA's redesign of conversion certification policies; 2) the introduction of an NGV incentive Bill in Congress; 3) the introduction of the Boxer Bill in Congress; 4) New Jersey transit's expanded refueling infrastructure; 5) a Sacramento group's efforts to increase awareness of EV benefits; 6) testing of hybrid electric buses by a New York R&D group; 7) the use of heavy-duty LNG vehicles at the L.A. Airport and USPS; 8) the introduction of a medium-duty NGV by DOE and USPS; 9) NGVC's council to support LNG; 10) EV charging sites in Arizona; 11) a fuel company's purchase of natural gas refueling stations; 12) the reduced cost of methanol in California; 13) heavy-duty alternatives from OEMs and rebuilders; 14) Chrysler's announcement of an E-85 minivan and gasoline-powered fuel cell; 15) Ford's provision of 15 E85 minivans for use in state and USPS fleets; 16) GM's announcement of CNG options in Sierra and C-Series pickup trucks; 17) DOE funding; 18) a Virginia company's CNG helicopters; 19) Clean Cities' addition of the first two Ohio cities; 20) the future of CNG in Philadelphia; and 21) the Clean Cities conference.

CleanFleet Final Report Summary, Vol. 1 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 1, Iss. 4) 11/1/1992 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the significant expansion of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in federal fleets; 2) the first U.S. ethanol bus program; 3) a study on compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); 4) new CNG packer trucks in New York; 5) federal agency plans to change fleets to alternative fuels; 6) DOE's heavy-duty alternative-fuel demonstration program; 7) NREL/DOE plans to support data collection on school buses; and 8) the Congressional passage of the National Energy Strategy.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions Brinkman, Norman; Wang, Michael; Weber, Trudy; Darlington, Thomas 5/30/2005 Reports

General Motors Corporation; Argonne National Laboratory; Air Improvement Resource, Inc.

An accurate assessment of future fuel/propulsion system options requires a complete vehicle fuel-cycle analysis, commonly called a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis. In this WTW study, we analyzed energy use and emissions associated with fuel production (or well-to-tank [WTT]) activities and energy use andemissions associated with vehicle operation (or tank-to-wheels [TTW])activities. Energy resources, such as petroleum, natural gas (NG), coal, and biomass, as well as the energy carrier, electricity, are considered as feedstocks to produce various transportation fuels, including gasoline, diesel fuel, hydrogen (H2), ethanol (EtOH), compressed natural gas (CNG), methanol (MeOH), and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The propulsion systems evaluated were spark-ignition (SI) engines, compression-ignition (CI) engines, hydrogen fuel cells, and fuel processor fuel cells, all in non-hybrid and hybrid electric configurations.This study updates and supplements a previous (2001) North American study, conducted by GM and others (General Motors [GM] et al. 2001), of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with advanced vehicle/fuel systems (GM Phase 1 North American study). The primary purposeof this Phase 2 study is to address criteria pollutant emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 10 microns (PM10), and sulfur oxide emissions (SOx). We also updated the vehicle modeling for energyconsumption with the latest powertrain maps and added some additional propulsion systems, such as hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs).As in the previous study, the vehicle modeled was a 2010-model-year, full-sized GM pickup truck. The truck was selected because it is a high seller among light-duty vehicles (cars and trucks) in the U.S. market, and light-duty trucks account for a large proportion of the fuel used in the U.S. vehicle fleet. In our study, we attempted

First Semi-Annual Report AFDC Light Duty Vehicles Wooley, R.;O'Connor, J.K.;Schrock, L.;Kelly, K. 10/7/1993 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This report analyzes all AMFA light-duty fleet vehicles in the AMFA I and AMFA II programs. It is divided into the following analysis sections: program monitoring and data quality assessment, fuel economy analysis, performance and unscheduled maintenance analysis, emissions analysis, and future considerations.

Replacement Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Tehnical and Policy Analysis Pursuant to Section 506 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 7/1/1997 Reports

Office of Transportation Technologies

This report is the first of two technical and policy analyses required by EPAct section 506.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 3, Iss. 1) 4/1/1994 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) AMFA heavy-duty data which indicates that E95 and CNG fuel economies are virtually the same as diesel; 2) DOE funding of a heavy-duty demonstration program; 3) DOE funding efforts for a safe school bus; 4) hotline inquiries; and 5) the comparison of fuel economies of light-duty AFVs.

Injector Spray Characterization of Methanol in Reciprocating Engines Dodge, L.;Naegeli, D. 6/1/1994

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO; Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX

This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 3 Issue 1 5/1/1999 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

Issue Volume 3, No. 1 of the Alternative Fuel Newsletter focuses on the new millenium: what's in store for alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles. A feature article highlights how national parks in the U.S. are working to reduce pollution by using alternative fuels within the parks.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 1 7/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: Ford liquefied petroleum gas-powered F-700 may set sales records; California considers fuel specifications; new ultra-safe LPG fueling nozzle; CNG 18-wheeler proves efficient; and alternative fuel alliance forms.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 5 Issue 4 3/19/2002 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of the Alternative Fuel News includes a cover story on the success of alternative fuel infrastructure development; a feature on the growing demand for certified AFV service technicians; and a story about the Bush administration's recent announcement of the hydrogen fuel cell Freedom Car Program at the Detroit Auto Show.

CleanFleet Final Report Vehicle Maintenance and Durability, Vol. 3 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motor fuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

CleanFleet Final Report Fleet Economics, Vol. 8 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The costs that face a fleet operator in implementing alternative motor fuels into fleet operations are examined. Five alternatives studied in the CleanFleet project are considered for choice of fuel: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85, and electricity. The cost assessment is built upon a list of thirteen cost factors grouped into the three categories: infrastructure costs, vehicle owning costs, and operating costs. Applicable taxes are included. A commonly used spreadsheet was adapted as a cost assessment tool. This tool was used in a case study to estimate potential costs to a typical fleet operator in package delivery service in the 1996 time frame. In addition, because electric cargo vans are unlikely to be available for the 1996 model year from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), the case study was extended to the 1998 time frame for the electric vans. Results of the case study are presented in cents per mile of vehicle travel for the fleet. Several options available to the fleet for implementing the fuels are examined.

CleanFleet Final Report Project Design and Implementation, Vol. 2 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motor fuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eighty-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration, information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

CleanFleet Final Report: Executive Summary 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 "control" vans operating on regular gasoline. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet's 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 2) 7/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) a report that alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) are approaching the performance and reliability expectations of gasoline vehicles among drivers of Federal fleet vehicles; 2) natural gas refuse trucks; 3) AFV student competitions; 4) advances in electric vehicles; and 5) new features on the AFDC's World Wide Web site.

Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program Motta, R.;Norton, P.;Kelly, K.;Chandler, K.;Schumacher, L.;Clark, N. 10/1/1996 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;Battelle, Columbus, OH;Univ. of Missouri;West Virginia Univ.

Transit buses represent one of the best applications for alternative fuels, which have already made significant inroads into the transit bus market. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, initiated a program to study the performance, reliability, costs, and emissions of alternative fuel transit buses versus conventional diesel buses (controls). This report comprehensively and objectively evaluates the reliability, operating costs, and emissions levels of all alternative fuels currently in use in the transit bus industry.

Limited Progress in Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Reaching Fuel Goals 2/1/2000 Reports

General Accounting Office

with the first deadline approaching for EPAct's petroleum replacement goals the GAO was asked to review progress towards achieving EPACT goals. gao was asked to determine the progress made in acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and using altnerative fuels to meeting the act's fuel replacement goals. Also, GAO determined the impediments to using alternative fuel vehicles and the measures that can be taken to address those impediments in order to reach the act's replacement goals.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 6 Issue 3 1/1/2003 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of Alternative Fuel News, published by the Clean Cities Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), starts with 51 individual success stories. Alternative fuels activity is happening in every state and the District of Columbia. </p><p>Next, we explain how auto dealers selling alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) may benefit from contact with Clean Cities stakeholders. Cummins Westport is featured as a leader in natural gas technology development. And then there's Phill-a device being developed for residential refueling of passenger cars powered by compressed natural gas. </p><p>Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel has moved one step closer to alternative fuel designation. The production of ethanol is growing rapidly in the U.S. Alternative fuel projects on Long Island have thrived, thanks to federal Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) funding. A new study by INFORM makes the case for waste trucks fueled by natural gas. And one writer extols the virtues of AFV commuting.

A Guide to the Emissions Certification Procedures for Alternative Fuel Aftermarket Conversions 1/30/1998 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

Emissions certification is still relatively new to the aftermarket vehicle conversion industry. Many in the industry think that as soon as a vehicle is converted to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), it automatically runs as clean as or cleaner than it did on the conventional fuel. However, recent studies have shown that aftemarket conversions may not always reduce emissions. To achieve emissions benefits, the conversion equipment must be designed and calibrated specifically for the engine and emissions control system on which it has been installed, and the installation and setup must be performed so as to not adversely affect the vehicle's original emissions performance. The reason for certification, then, is to ensure that these criteria are met, that the vehicle continues to perform properly, and that it continues to satisfy all appropriate emissions standards throughout its useful life.

Alternative Fuels in Public Transit: A Match Made on the Road 3/1/2002 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As alternative fuels compete with conventional fuels for a place in public awareness and acceptance, one of their most visible applications is in public transportation. Vehicles, particularly buses and shuttles, that carry people in large numbers, stand to gain much from using alternative fuels. Such high-demand fuel users can help sustain a fueling infrastructure that supports private autos and other smaller vehicles.

Perspectives on AFVs: State and City Government Fleet Driver Survey Whalen, M.;Eudy, L.;Coburn, T. 4/1/1999 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy - National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This survey collected information from state government and city government fleet drivers who operate light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The survey posed questions related to AFV use, fuel use and availability, and performance. Surveys were completed with 468 state government fleet drivers, from 44 of the 50 states. In all, 403 surveys were completed with city government fleet drivers from 39 different cities across the country.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 4 2/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) New Natural Gas powered Trucks Available in 1996; 2) Truck Standards in the Works; 3) Cummins Announces New Natural Gas Engine; 4) LNG Pavilion to Travel the Nation; 5) Weight Limits Challenge LNG Adoption

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 1) 4/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) NREL testing conversions; 2) a new AFV acquisition rule for fleets; 3) federal fleets; 4) students helping to design better cars; 5) the release of training center standards; and 6) new AFVs on the market.

A Full Fuel Cycle Analysis of Energy and Emissions Impacts of Transportation Fuels Produced from Natural Gas Wang, M.;Huang, H. 12/1/1999 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

Because of its abundance and because it offers significant energy and envirnomental advantages, natural gas has been promoted for use in motor vehicles. A number of transportation fuels are produced from natural gas: each is distinct in terms of upstream production activities and vehicle usage. In this study, researchers evaluated eight fuels produced from natural gas - compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and electricity - for use in five types of motor vehicles - spark-ignition vehicles, compression-ignition vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, battery-powered electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles. Because of great uncertainties associated with advances in both fuel production and vehicle technologies, near-term and long-term fuels and vehicle technologies were evaluated separately. The study reveals that, in general, the use of petroleum-based fuels reduces energy use and emissions relative to use of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel, although different natural gas-based fuels in different vehicle technologies can have significantly different energy and emissions impacts.

Notes: This document is available on the Argonne National Laboratory Transportation Technology Research and Development Center Web Site - http://www.transportation.anl.gov/ttrdc/pdfs/TA/13.pdf

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 6 Issue 1 7/1/2002 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of Alternative Fuel News, published by the National Clean Cities Program, features a cover story on auctions of used alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Included is an account of an auction in southern California, plus first-hand reporting from a Denver auction. Also included is the story of Royalty Enterprises, an alternative fuels entrepreneur in central Ohio, AFV community groups in New York, and a government-industry partnership to develop heavy trucks fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG). Plus Ford's new CNG school bus, a new online AFV buyers guide for consumers, electric trolleys in Connecticut, $4.6 million in State Energy Program (SEP) grants, and much more.

Addendum to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A 9/4/1997 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

The purpose of this document is to clarify and revise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "tampering" enforcement policy for motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines originally designed to operate on gasoline or diesel fuel and subsequently modified to operate exclusively or in conjunction with compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane).

Perspectives on AFVs: 1996 Federal Fleet Driver Survey 9/15/1997 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of fleet managers.

Airport-based Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets 2/1/2001 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

Airport-based Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets describes why the Airport 'niche market' is uniquely suited for the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Learn why ground support equipment and landside vehicles make such good candidates for alternative fuel use and how airports such as Denver International, LAX, and Boston's Logan have been successful in implementing AFVs.

Revision to Addendum to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A 6/1/1998 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

The purpose of this document is to revise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Addendum to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A policy for motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines originally designed to operate on gasoline or diesel fuel and subsequently modified to operate exclusively or in conjunction with compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane).

Executive Order 13031, Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership Clinton, W.J. 12/13/1996 Reports

Office of the President of the United States, Washington, D.C.

Executive Order 13031 outlines the provisions to ensure that the Federal Government exercises leadership in the use of alternative fueled vehicles (AFVs). To that end, each Federal agency should develop and implement aggressive plans to fulfill the alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements established by the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

Alternative Fuel Trucks Case Studies - The Archer Daniels Midland Experience Norton, P.;Kelly, K. J.;Marek, N. J. 10/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs

This case study looks at operating refuse trucks on compressed natural gas (CNG). It covers fuel economy and range, cost, maintenance and repair issues, emissions, and lessons learned from a NYC demonstration project.

Program Analysis Methodology Office of Transportation Technologies Quality Metrics Final Report 2001 Patterson, P.; Maples, J.;Moore, J.; Birky, A. 2/23/2000 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies

This report focuses on the projected benefits of the forty-one programs currently supported through the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) under EE/RE. For analytical purposes, these various benefits are subdivided in terms of Planning Units which are related to the OTT program structure. The scope of this report encompasses light vehicles including passenger automobiles and class 1 & 2 (light) trucks, as well as class 3 through 8 (heavy) trucks. The range of light vehicle technologies investigated include electric, hybrid electric, fuel cell, advanced diesel, natural gas fueled, and stratified charge direct-injection. A future distribution of light vehicle sizes, applications, and performance levels is calculated based on current vehicle stocks and trends, and consumer preferences. The heavy vehicle technologies investigated include hybrid, natural gas-fueled and advanced diesel. The effects of advanced materials technologies across all vehicle types are also analyzed.

Notes: This report is available in PDF format on the Office of Transportation Technology's Web site http://www.ott.doe.gov/facts/publications/QM2001.pdf

State Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentives: A Decade and More of Lessons Learned Brown, M.;Breckenridge, L. 2/1/2001 Reports

National Conference of State Legislatures

This report assesses the effectiveness of state incentives and suggests incentives that might encourage new vehicle technologies. It does not assess whether a state should promote alternative fuel vehicles or whether such vehicles are the most effective means to reduce air pollution. Rather, the analysis analyzes the effectiveness of state incentives of the past decade and describes the characteristics of effective alternative fuel vehicle incentives and the fiscal implications for a state that is committed to support an effective alternative fuel vehicle program.

Atlanta's Kent Igleheart Brings Home 2001 Outstanding Coordinator Award 7/1/2001 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy - National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Kent Igleheart of the Atlanta Clean Cities Coalition received the Outstanding Clean Cities Coordinator Award at the 7th National Clean Cities Conference in Philadelphia.

BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit Barnitt, R. 1/1/2008 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is part of a series of evaluation from the U.S. Department of Energy through the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) at NREL. The role of AVTA is to bridge the gap between research and development and the commercial availability for advanced vehicle technologies that reduce petroleum use while meeting air quality standards.</p><p> DOE/NREL evaluated the original 10 prototype diesel-hybrid buses from Orion and BAE Systems operated by the New York City Transit Co. (NYCT) The next report focused on 10 new compressed natural gas (CNG) and 10 next generation diesel hybrid electric buses. In the present evaluation, the focus is on hybrid-electric transit buses (equipped with BAE Systems' HybriDrive propulsion system) purchased by NYCT in an order group of 200 (Gen II), and their performance during their first year of service.

SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 6/1/2008 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report describes evaluation of operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus; a prototype hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus; and five new compressed natural gas buses. This is the third evaluation report for SunLine Transit Agency in Thousand Palms, California. This report provides an update to the previous reports (Feb 2007 & Sep 2007) and includes results and experience through March 2008. During the data collection period (Jan 2006 - Mar 2008), SunLine operated the fuel cell bus nearly 51,000 miles in service with an overall fuel economy of 7.19 miles per kg. For comparison, SunLine's CNG buses have an average fuel economy of 3.02 miles per gasoline gallon equivalent. During the same timeframe, the HHICE bus accumulated more than 43,000 miles with an average fuel economy of 4.34 miles per kg.

Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Emergency Responder Information 1/1/1997

Toyota Motor Sales, USA Inc., Torrance, CA

Toyota developed Emergency Response Guides (ERG's) to educate and assist emergency responders in the safe handling of Toyota alternative fuel vehicles that incorporate CNG, hydrogen, or high voltage electrical systems. The ERG's cover emergency response procedures in the following specific areas: vehicle identification; high voltage; hydrogen and cng gas systems; disabling procedures and warnings; extrication; and roadside assistance. Guides are available for the CNG Camry, RAV4 EV, Prius (Model Years 2001 to 2004), and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, No. 4) 2/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) Clinton's issuance of an Executive Order on alternative fuels; 2) passage of the Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 through Congress; 3) The introduction of an NGV incentives package by the House Natural Gas Vehicle Task Force; 4) a New York bond act for clean fuel programs; 5) California's veto of an AFV incentive; 6) a "Stealth Bus" in Los Angeles; 7) Ashland Chemical, Inc.'s switch to M85 Ford Tauruses in its fleet; 8) New York City's increasing use of alternative fuels; 9) Iowa DOT's blend of biodiesel in heavy-duty vehicles; 10) King County, Washington's use of natural gas in police fleets; 11) heavy-duty trucks on ethanol; 12) UPS's plans to double its NGV fleet by 1998; 13) EV charging sites in Arizona; 14) changes at the National Biodiesel Board; 15) alternative fuel refueling sites on the Web; 16) the U.S. Postal Service and the DOE's plans to introduce a CNG mail truck; 17) Clean Cities; 18) Honda's announcement of a natural gas Civic; 19) the rise of alternative fuel bus purchases; 20) Ford Motor Company's AFV rebates; 21) natural gas testing in U.S. Volvos; 22) the introduction of EV1s; 23) Nissan's use of lithium-ion in its electric vehicles; and 24) plans for cleaner off-road engines.

Model Year 2001: Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles Available or Nearing Completion Jon Aron 9/1/2000 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado

This document provides facts about Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles that will be made available by equipment manufacturers to fleet buyers and the general public for model year 2001.

Coating Systems for NGV Composite Cylinders - Final Report 9/1/1994 Reports

Gas Research Inst.

This report documents an investigation of acid-resistant coating systems that can be applied to composite storage cylinders used on natural gas vehicles. Two recent tank failures were likely caused by stress corrosion cracking of the composite overwrap. Cracking was probably induced by acidic compounds (battery acid) in direct contact with the cylinder's fiber reinforced plastic overwrap. A literature search, discussions with cylinder manufacturers, and laboratory materials studies were performed to identify potential coatings. This investigation also identified relevant test procedures for environmental and materials evaluations. SEM measurements identified microcracks induced by stress corrosion. Laboratory testing included acid immersion tests of coated and uncoated specimens on E-glass/epoxy and E-glass/polyester substrates, as well as physical and mechanical characterization of exposed and control samples. Full scale cylinders, both coated and uncoated were also tested by exposing a segment of each cylinder to a concentrated acidic solution. Both preliminary laboratory and full scale results indicated that the preferred coating materials (in order of resistance) were neoprene rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, polyurethane coatings, and epoxy and polyester coatings, based on resistance to degradation of the composite materials and cylinders.

Model Year 2002: Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles Jon Aron 9/1/2001 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden Colorado

This document provides facts about Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles that will be made available by equipment manufacturers to fleet buyers and the general public for model year 2002.

ASE Certification for Light/Medium Duty CNG/LPG Training Programs 1/1/1995 Reports

National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA

This report covers policies, procedures, and program standards for ASE certification. It includes task lists, tools and equipment, self-evaluation guidelines for initial certification and recertification, and forms for initial and re-certification.

NYCT Diesel Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Final Data Report 4/1/2002 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio 43201-2693

Final data report focuses on the experiences gathered during New York City Transit's deployment of hybrid electric buses in its fleet.

Model Year 2000: Light-Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available or Nearing Completion 11/1/1999 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Alternative Fuels Hotline, Arlington, VA

ASE Program Certification Standards - Light/Medium Duty CNG/LPG 11/1/1995 Reports

National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA

This booklet is intended to provide entry level automotive technicians an understanding of the industry. It covers policies, procedures, program standards, task lists, and tools and equipment.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - May 4, 2000 Laughlin, M. 5/4/2000 Reports

QSS Group Inc., Lanham, Maryland.

This report summarizes and compares alternative fuel and gasoline prices across the U.S.

Notes: A printable PDF version of this document can be downloaded from the Alternative Fuel Data Center's web site http://www.afdc.doe.gov/pdfs/A_F_Price_Report_5_5.pdf

Model Year 2003: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available or Nearing Completion Coene, N. 8/27/2002 Brochures & Fact Sheets

ICF Consulting, Fairfax, Virginia

This document provides facts and figures for all model year 2003 alternative fuel vehicles available to fleet buyers and the general public to lease or purchase.

Comparison of CNG and LNG Technologies for Transportation Applications: Final Subcontract Report, June 1991 - December 1991 Sinor, J. E. 1/1/1992 Reports

J. E. Sinor Consultants, Niwot, CO; National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Study Summary Eudy, L. 3/1/2001 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

In March 1999, the Office of Technology Utilization's Field Operations Program began a fleet evaluation of CNG vans in the SuperShuttle fleet in Boulder, Colorado. The results for the evaluation were positive and the fleet is considering adding more alternative fuel vehicles in the future. This fact sheet summarizes the details of the study.

Travel Matters: Mitigating Climate Change with Sustainable Surface Transportation Feigon, S.; Hoyt, D.; McNally, L.; Mooney-Bullock, R.; Campbell, S.; Leach, D. 11/7/2003 Reports

Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C.

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 93: Travel Matters - Mitigating Climate Change with Sustainable Surface Transportation presents information on climate change and examines how greenhouse gas emissions from transportation may be reduced. The report also looks at the capacity of public transportation to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Notes: Copies of this document can be downloaded from the Transportation Research Board Website at: http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?ID=2071

The Pierce Transit Story Case Study 1/1/1998 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

In 1986, Pierce Transit made a commitment to the future of the transportation industry and to the environment by deciding to put buses powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) into everyday service. This case study outlines the company's success and how it was achieved.

Natural Gas in Transit Fleets: A Review of the Transit Experience Eudy, L. 2/1/2002 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Use of natural gas in transit bus fleets has grown over the last decade. Often motivated by air quality concerns, the use of natural gas also contributes to national and local energy security. Approximately 9 percent of the U.S. transit fleet in 2001 was composed of buses operating on some form of natural gas and even more were on order. While some agencies have achieved success with their natural gas programs, others report difficulties and some have suspended their natural gas use altogether. What makes an agency successful in implementing natural gas into their operations? This pager reviews the experience of agencies with natural gas to determine the answer and to provide guidance on how fleets can effectively duplicate the successes and address or avoid the challenges.

Using CNG Trucks in National Parks 5/1/1998 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) has successfully introduced cleaner-burning alternative fuel (in particular, compressed natural gas, or CNG) transit vehicles, such as refuse haulers electric trams, to relieve traffic congestion and help to protect the National Park System's (NPS) natural resources and historic sites. As part of this effort, NPS and DOI are working with DOE to implement alternative fuels in heavy trucks to attain goals of environmental sustainability and efficient operation. This report outlines the steps required to put CNG trucks in operation in the NPS fleet.

Federal Tax Incentives Encourage Alternative Fuel Use 5/1/2008 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. government provides several tax incentives for purchasing alternative fuel, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles; installing alternative fueling infrastructure; and producing, selling, or using alternative fuels. The IRS has defined alternative fuels as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); liquefied hydrogen; liquid fuel derived from coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process; liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass including ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable diesel; and P-series fuels. Current federal tax incentives are outlined in this fact sheet.

Development of an Ultra-Safe, Ultra-Low Emissions Natural Gas-Fueled School Bus - Phase I; Systems Design Final Report Kubesh, J. 5/1/1995 Reports

Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX; National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

Phase I of this project focused on the design of the component sytems for an ultra-safe, ultra-low emissions school bus. SwRI teamed with Blue Bird, Incorporated, Deere Power Systems Group, and CNG Cylinder Company to design the engine and fuel storage systems for the vehicle. Based on this work, design and construction on the prototype bus have begun. The prototype bus should be completed by the end of calendar year 1995.

Alternative Fuel Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary Whalen, M. 5/1/1999 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

In 1996, Barwood Inc., a taxicab company based in Kensington, Maryland, committed to incorporating a limited number of CNG vehicles into its fleet. This fact sheet summarizes their experience with Ford Crown Victoria sedans, 10 were dedicated CNG models and 10 were standard gasoline models. Fuel economy and cost, maintenance costs, emissions, and total operating costs were compared for each type of vehicle.

Demonstration of Caterpillar C-10 Dual-Fuel Engines in MCI 102DL3 Commuter Buses 1/1/2000 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, Goleta, CA National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO

The purpose of this program was to demonstrate the Caterpillar C-10 Dual-Fuel Natural Gas (DFNG) engine in an over-the-road bus application. Three new Motor Coach Industries (MCI) 102DL3 buses, equipped with Caterpillar C-10 DFNG engines, and one bus, equipped with a Caterpillar C-10 diesel engine, were operated side by side on similar fixed-route revenue service for a 12-month demonstration period (February 1998 to January 1999). The buses were used as part of the Clean Air Express Commuter Bus Program in Santa Barbara County, California. The performance and reliability of the DFNG engines were similar to that of the diesel engine, but the emissions results were mixed.

Development of a Direct Injected Natural Gas Engine System for Heavy-duty Vehicles. Final Report Phase I Cox, FB;Del Vecchio,WJ;Hays, WJ;Hiltner, JD;Nagaraj, R;Emmer, 2/1/2000 Reports

Caterpillar, Inc.

The report summarizes the results of the first year Phase 1 of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as 'basic technology' development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g. ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NOx emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr to 2.5 gm/hp-hr on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified. Please note that this report was written in February 1997, but published April 2000.

Development of a Direct Injected Natural Gas Engine System for Heavy-duty Vehicles. Final Report Phase II Cox, FB;Del Vecchio,WJ;Hays, WJ;Hiltner, JD;Nagaraj, R;Emmer, C 2/1/2000 Reports

Caterpillar, Inc.

The report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. Four tasks were completed under this phase. 1. Developed a computational fluid dynamics model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system. 2. Designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. 3. Developed a decision and Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. 4. MVE, Inc. completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3000 psi LNG pump. Plans for the next phase of this program have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine.

City of Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation LNG Heavy-Duty Trucks 2/1/2004 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet describes an Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) field study for Dual-Fuel? liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuse trucks used by the City of Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation. The study showed that the trucks with Dual-Fuel engines were best suited to meet the operational requirements of refuse collection. Specifically, the Dual-Fuel trucks had adequate horsepower and torque and could be operated safely over all terrains covered by the Bureau's refuse collection service.

SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Evaluation: Final Report Eudy, L. 10/1/2000 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

SuperShuttle originated in Los Angeles in 1983 as a shuttle service that focused on shared ride door-to-door airport passenger service. The company currently services 23 airports, with 1,000 vehicles transporting more than 20,000 passengers each day. SuperShuttle has been operating in Colorado since mid 1996, serving the local community and Denver International Airport (DIA). Their fleet of 85 vehicles includes 18 AFVs, fueled by both liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). For this project, data was collected from 13 passenger vans operating in the Boulder/Denver, Colorado, area. The study vehicles were all 1999 Ford E-350 passenger vans based at SuperShuttle's Boulder location. Five of the vans were dedicated CNG, five were bi-fuel CNG/gasoline, and three were standard gasoline vans that were used for comparison.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - November 1, 2000 Laughlin, M. 11/1/2000 Reports

QSS Group Inc.

This is the second issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered during the week of October 9, 2000 with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report for the week of April 10, 2000.

Notes: A printable PDF version of this document can be downloaded from the Alternative Fuel Data Center's web site http://www.afdc.doe.gov/pdfs/AFPrice_11_01.pdf

California State Alternative Fuels Plan 10/1/2007 Reports

Transportation Committee, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California; California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

The California State Alternative Fuels Plan presents strategies and actions California must take to increase the use of alternative non-petroleum fuels in a manner that minimizes costs to the state and maximizes the economic benefits of in-state production. The plan assessed various alternative fuels and developed fuel portfolios to meet California's goals to reduce petroleum consumption, increase alternative fuels use, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase in-state production of biofuels, without causing a significant degradation of public health and environmental quality. The key circumstances and conditions necessary to achieve the plan outcomes are presented for each fuel based on plan assumptions and analysis. The plan describes a 2050 Vision that extends the plan outcomes beyond the milestone years of 2012, 2017, and 2022 and lays a foundation for building a multi-fuel transportation energy future for California.

Model Year 2005: Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles Available or Nearing Completion 8/1/2004 Brochures & Fact Sheets

ICF Consulting, Fairfax, Virginia

This document provides facts and figures for all model year 2005 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles (including hybrid electric cars) available to fleet buyers and the general public.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - July 3, 2001 Laughlin, M. 7/3/2001 Reports

QSS Group Inc.

This is the fourth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report,a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders during the weeks of May 28 and June 4, 2001, with comparisons to the prices in the previous price report for the week of October 9, 2000.

Notes: A printable PDF version of this document can be downloaded from the Alternative Fuel Data Center's web site http://www.afdc.doe.gov/pdfs/A_F_Price_Report_7_3.pdf

Ending the Energy Stalemate: A Bipartisan Strategy to Meet America's Energy Challenges 12/1/2004 Reports

National Commission on Energy Policy, Washington, D.C.

A bipartisan group of top energy experts from industry, government, labor, academia, and environmental and consumer groups produced this report to address major long-term U.S. energy challenges. The report contains detailed policy recommendations for addressing oil security, climate change, natural gas supply, the future of nuclear energy, and other long-term challenges, and is backed by more than 30 original research studies.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - December 17, 2001 Lott, M. 12/17/2001 Reports

QSS Group Inc., Lanham, MD 20706

This is the fifth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to data on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders during the weeks of October 15 and October 22, 2001, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report for the week of June 4, 2001.

Model Year 2007: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2006 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Alternative Fuels Data Center. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This document provides facts and figures for all model year 2007 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles (including hybrid electric cars) available to fleet buyers and the general public.

Evaluation of Aftermarket Fuel Delivery Systems for Natural Gas and LPG Vehicles Willson, B. 9/1/1992 Reports

Colorado State University;Fort Collins, CO

This study evaluates the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The author performed a detailed literature and product review to evaluate the performance, emissions, drivability, and safety of vehicles fueled by CNG or LPG. The study concluded that both CNG- and LPG-fueled vehicles have the potential for clean, economical, and safe operation. A list of research priorities is included.

Development of a Throttleless Natural Gas Engine Kubesh, J. 2/1/2002 Reports

Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas

The primary focus of the project was to investigate methods to increase the efficiency of natural gas engines, especially under part-load conditions. This report contains details on the development of a natural gas-fueled engine capable of throttleless operation to improve part load efficiency. In-cylinder fuel-air charge stratification was pursued as the mechanism for throttleless operation. Various methods of charge stratification were investigated, including direct injection, stratified charge (DISC) and a fuel injected prechamber (FIPC). The FIPC combustion system was found to be a more practical solution to the problem of charge stratification. Performance and emissions results from this engine configuration are presented and comparisons are made between current natural gas engines and the prototype FIPC engine.

Natural Gas Transit Users Group: Assisting Transit Agencies with Natural Gas Bus Technologies 4/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

Transit buses are a key niche market for natural gas vehicles. Increasingly, transit agencies have been choosing natural gas buses as a way to cut air pollution and boost energy security. The Natural Gas Transit Users Group provides information and assistance to transit agencies that are operating or considering acquisition of natural gas transit buses. It is anticipated that this will lead to increased use of natural gas buses, resulting in reduced U.S. petroleum consumption.

Alternative Fuels Commercialization in Support of the 2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report California Energy Commission Staff 5/1/2005 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA

California's demand for transportation fuels has increased 53 percent in the last 20 years and in the next 20 years, gasoline and diesel demand will increase another 36 percent. California refineries rely increasingly on imported petroleum products to meet this demand. In 2003, the California Energy Commission and the California Air Resources Board adopted a two-pronged strategy to reduce petroleum demand: promoting improved vehicle efficiency, and increasing use of alternative fuels. This report discusses those alternative fuels used in transportation, including biodiesel, electricity, ethanol, gas to liquid fuels, hydrogen, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), and natural gas.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - March 28, 2002 Lott, M. 3/28/2002 Reports

QSS Group Inc., Lanham, MD 20706

This is the fifth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders during the months of January and February, 2002, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report which were collected in October, 2001.

Transit Users Group Supports Transit Agencies with Natural Gas Buses 4/1/2002 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet describes the Natural Gas Transit Users Group (TUG), an organization made up of representatives from transit agencies, industry associations, and government entities, that promotes natural gas vehicle technology in transit fleets.

Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program Fact Sheet 5/1/2002 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Members of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are working to develop advanced, commercially viable, medium- and heavy-duty NGVs. The primary objective of the program is to develop two new NGVs for commercial servicea medium-duty (Class 3-6) compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle and a heavy-duty (Class 7-8) liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle by 2004.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - May 10, 2002 Lott, M. 5/10/2002 Reports

QSS Group Inc., Lanham, MD 20706

This is the sixth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders during the weeks of April 15 and April 22, 2002, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report which were collected in February, 2002.

Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results Whalen,P.,Kelly,K.,John,M. 5/1/1999 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compressed natural gas Crown Victoria sedans in the Barwood taxicab fleet.

Alternative Fuel Case Study: Denver SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Evaluation Eudy, L. 5/1/1999 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Overview of Advanced Technology Transportation, 2005 Update Barnitt, R.; Eudy, L. 8/1/2005 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This overview of the 2005 transportation market includes hybrid, fuel cell, hydrogen, and alternative fuel vehicles. It covers vehicle sales, emissions, potential partners, advanced technology vehicle availability, and other factors. It also offers a "snapshot" of current vehicle technologies and trends.

United Parcel Service (UPS) CNG Truck Fleet: Final Results Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.; Clark, N. 8/1/2002 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

In cooperation with UPS, a selection of Freightliner CNG delivery vehicles from the company's original 1996 order were evaluated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) Truck Evaluation Project. The plan for this evaluation was to test as many as 15 CNG package delivery cars and 3 diesel package delivery cars operating in the Hartford, Connecticut area from UPS's Waterbury, Hartford, and Windsor facilities. This report included a technical review of data collected for the UPS CNG package delivery car operations in Hartford and Waterbury, Connecticut, compared with UPS diesel truck operations in Windsor, Connecticut. The objective of this project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of CNG as one alternative to conventional diesel fuel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report - August 8, 2002 Lott, M. 8/8/2002 Reports

QSS Group Inc., Lanham, MD 20706

This is the seventh issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders during the weeks of July 15, July 22, and July 29, 2002, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report which were collected in April, 2002.

Alternative Fuel Driver Training Companion Manual 9/1/2005 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

In the summer of 2004, EPAct and Clean Cities worked together to develop a course to teach trainers how to educate fleet drivers on the use of alternative fuels and vehicles. This manual features the information presented in the classes, including the safe use of four alternative fuels: biodiesel, compressed natural gas, (CNG), E85, (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), and propane.

Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions 4/1/2010 Reports

U.S. Department of Transportation, Center for Climate Change and Envrionmental Forecasting, Washington, DC

This U.S. Department of Transportation report is submitted in response to the requirements of Section 1101(c) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. It is intended to help inform the debate on surface transportation reauthorization and climate change legislation.</p><p>The report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels and trends from the transportation sector and analyzes the full range of strategies available to reduce these emissions. These strategies include: introducing low-carbon fuels, increasing vehicle fuel economy, improving transportation system efficiency, and reducing carbon-intensive travel activity. While the report does not provide recommendations, it does analyze five categories of policy options for implementing the strategies: an economy-wide price signal, efficiency standards, market incentives, transportation planning and funding programs and research and development.

Model Year 2006: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Alternative Fuels Data Center. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This document provides facts and figures for all model year 2006 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles (including hybrid electric cars) available to fleet buyers and the general public.

Clean Cities 2009 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 11/1/2008 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 32-page booklet offers information about available 2009 alternative fuel vehicles including natural gas, propane, electric, hybrid, ethanol and biodiesel vehicles.

Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses Melendez, M.; Taylor, J.; Zuboy, J.; Wayne, W.S.; Smith, D. 12/1/2005 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado;West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

In 2004, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory led an evaluation of the emissions of transit buses operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). The goal of this project was to evaluate the emissions of natural gas transit buses and the improving baseline emissions of comparable diesel buses with advanced emission control technologies. The buses were tested for numerous regulated and unregulated emissions, including hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter, and various toxic emissions. The analysis demonstrated the emissions advantage of CNG buses as well as promising fuel economy results for the CNG buses compared with the diesel buses.