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Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

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Emissions from Trucks using Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel Norton, P.;Vertin, K.;Bailey, B.;Clark, N.;Lyons, D.;Goguen, S.;Eberhardt, J. 10/19/1998 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of feedstocks,including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excelllent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. An overview of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel production and engine emissions testing is presented. Previous engine laboratory test indicate that F-T diesel is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and substantial exhaust emissions reductions can be realized. The authors have performed preliminary tests to asssess the real-world performance of F-T diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks. Seven White-GMC Class 8 trucks equipped with Caterpillar 10.3 liter engines were tested using F-T diesel fuel. Vehicle emissions test were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The trucks were found to perform adequately on neat F-T diesel fuel. Compared to a California diesel fuel baseline, neat F-T diesel fuel emitted about 12% lower oxides (NOx) and 24% lower particulate matter over a five-mile driving cycle.

Alternative Fuels in Trucking, Vol. 1, No. 2 4/1/1992 Newsletters

Trucking Research Inst., Alexandria, VA

This issue includes articles on: 1) the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department at West Virginia University which designed and constructed a Transportable Engine Emissions Testing Laboratory for monitoring engine performance and emissions testing for heavy duty vehicles operating on conventional and alternative fuels; 2) the Cummins natural gas demonstration project; and 3) learning about alternative fuels from the experiences of other companies.

Clean Cities Drive - Spring 1996 (Vol. 3, No. 2) 4/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) technical and training centers for skilled mechanics; 2) new training standards; 3) the promotion of AFVs by stakeholders; 4) Ford's first light-duty propane vehicle; 5) Clean Cities updates; and 6) a calendar of events.

Final Report of the Interagency Commission on Alternative Motor Fuels 9/1/1992 Reports

Interagency Commission on Alternative Motor Fuels

This final report of the Interagency Commission on Alternative Motor Fuels describes progress to date in implementing the provisions of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (AMFA; Public Law 100-494). The purpose of AMFA is to help achieve energy security, improve air quality, and encourage the production of methanol-, ethanol-, and natural-gas-powered motor vehicles by encouraging the development and widespread consumer use of methanol, ethanol, and natural gas as transportation fuels. AMFA seeks to help alternative transportation fuels reach the threshold level of commercial application and consumer acceptability at which they can successfully compete with petroleum-based transportation fuels.

Notes: Report based on studies performed by Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN; Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL; EA Eastern Division; Carlton Enterprises

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 5 Issue 4 3/19/2002 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of the Alternative Fuel News includes a cover story on the success of alternative fuel infrastructure development; a feature on the growing demand for certified AFV service technicians; and a story about the Bush administration's recent announcement of the hydrogen fuel cell Freedom Car Program at the Detroit Auto Show.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 5 Issue 2 7/1/2001 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue of the Alternative Fuel News features articles on the National Energy Policy; the 2001 National Clean Cities Conference including Coalition Award and Partner Award recipients; station cars; and new emissions-reducing incentives in Texas.

Clean Cities Drive - Summer 1996 (Vol. 3, No. 3) 7/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) state and fuel provider fleets acquiring alternative fuel vehicles; 2) the 1996 second national Clean Cities conference; 3) five Clean Cities receiving grants for natural gas programs; 4) enthusiasm for Clean Cities spreading into Canada, Mexico, and Chile; 5) an electric vehicle road trip; 6) airports as a centerpiece for Clean Cities programs; 7) alternative fuels in the skies; 8) California's use of technology to expand the fueling network; 9) the switch to clean vehicles by police departments; 10) James Ferguson, the Clean Cities Program Manager; 11) Clean Cities updates; and 12) a calendar of events.

The Long-Run Impact of Corn-Based Ethanol on the Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Sectors: A Preliminary Assessment Elobeid, A.; Tokgoz, S.; Hayes, D.J.; Babcock, B.A.; Hart, C.E. 11/1/2006 Reports

Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

The ongoing growth of corn-based ethanol production raises some fundamental questions about the impact of continued growth on U.S. and world agricultural markets. Estimates of the long-run potential for ethanol production can be made by calculating the corn price at which the incentive to expand ethanol production disappears. Under current ethanol tax policy, if the prices of crude oil, natural gas, and distillers grains stay at current levels, then the break-even corn price is $4.05 per bushel.At this price, corn-based ethanol production would reach 31.5 billion gallons per year, or about 20% of projected U.S. fuel consumption in 2015. Supporting this level of production would require 95.6 million acres of corn to be planted. Total corn production would be approximately 15.6 billion bushels, compared to 11.0 billion bushels today. Most of the additional corn acres come from reduced soybean acreage. Corn exports and production of pork and poultry would all be reduced in response to higher corn prices and increased utilization of corn by ethanol plants. These results are not to be viewed as a prediction of what will eventually happen. Rather, they indicate a logical end point to the current incentives to invest in corn-based ethanol plants.

Life-Cycle Costs of Alternative Fuels: Is Biodiesel Cost Competitive for Urban Buses? Ahouissoussi, N. B. C.;Wetzstein, M. E. 11/1/1995 Reports

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC

The purpose of this paper is to provide an expected cost comparison for operating a transit-bus fleet on three different alternative fuels - biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG) and mathanol. Petroleum diesel is the base fuel. Infrastructure, refueling, and maintenance costs are all part of running an urban transit bus. Additional expenditures would be needed to change fuel storage and delivery systems, as well as bus engines and fuel systems, to use methanol or CNG. Using a 5-percent discount rate, the present value per bus mile was calculated for the total cost (the sum of infrastructure, bus-alteration, refueling, and maintenance expenses) of a transit fleet over the estimated 30-year life cycle of a refueling infrastructure. Not surprisingly, diesel buses had the lowest cost at 24.7 cents per mile. As biodiesel is blended with diesel, the cost per mile ranged from 27.9 to 47.5 cents, depending on the amount of biodiesel used and its estimated price. CNG's cost varied from 37.5 to 42 cents per mile, while methanol's cost was 73.6 cents per mile. This analysis indicates that, although biodiesel and biodiesel blends have higher total costs than diesel fuel, they have the potential to compete with CNG and methanol as fuels for urban transit buses.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 6 Issue 1 7/1/2002 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of Alternative Fuel News, published by the National Clean Cities Program, features a cover story on auctions of used alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Included is an account of an auction in southern California, plus first-hand reporting from a Denver auction. Also included is the story of Royalty Enterprises, an alternative fuels entrepreneur in central Ohio, AFV community groups in New York, and a government-industry partnership to develop heavy trucks fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG). Plus Ford's new CNG school bus, a new online AFV buyers guide for consumers, electric trolleys in Connecticut, $4.6 million in State Energy Program (SEP) grants, and much more.

Clean Cities Drive - Post Conference Issue ( Vol. 3, No. 1) 1/1/1996 Newsletters

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

This issue includes articles on the following: Clean Cities Stakeholders First Annual Conference, GRI Announces Grants for Clean Cities, Antelope Valley Schools use Creative Funding To Keep Smog in Check, New Clean Cities Designations,

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 2 10/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) heavy-duty trucks accelerating the growth of the American alternative transportation fuels market and 2) the U.S. Department of Energy alternative fuel heavy-duty vehicle program.

Alternative Fuels in Trucking, Vol. 3, No. 1 1/1/1994 Newsletters

Trucking Research Inst., Alexandria, VA

This issue includes articles on: 1) proposed federal air quality rules for California; 2) the role of propane in heavy-duty appliations; and 3) natural gas applications in transportation.

Clean Cities Communicator (Vol. 1, No. 2) 5/1/1996 Newsletters

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

This issue highlights the different ways that alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be showcased during the summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia as well as other events around the country.

Alternative Fuels in Trucking, Vol. 3, No. 2 4/1/1994 Newsletters

Trucking Research Inst., Alexandria, VA

This issue includes articles on: 1) the role of ethanol in heavy-duty applications; 2) methanol as a catalyst for emerging transportation technologies; and 3) a demonstration of the Caterpillar G3406LE natural gas engine.

Clean Fuels Paving the Way for America's Future: A Source for Information on Clean Burning Alternative Transportation Fuels 4/1/1995 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

With so many alternative fuels being promoted by various groups, it is important for legislators, the public and all interested parties to understand the different fuels that are available, how they are made, how they are used and their impact on the environment. This brochure is intended to help legislators at all levels to make informed decisions and for the media, with a responsibility of informing the public, to be educated on these issues. The fuels covered in this brochure include: ethanol, ethyl tertiary butyl ether, methanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether, biodiesel, gasoline additives and combustion modifiers, electric vehicles, natural gas and propane. It also summarizes regional and state clean fuel policies and regulations.

Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics Welch, Cory 2/1/2006 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Much attention has been given to the use of hydrogen as an alternative transportation fuel, but hydrogen was certainly not the first fuel considered as an alternative to gasoline for transportation applications. Options ranging from all-electric vehicles to those running on natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel have also received both industry and government attention. Unfortunately, previous government efforts to encourage widespread adoption of alternative fuel vehicles have been largely unsuccessful. The National Academy of Engineering suggested that 'DOE might have its greatest impact by leading the private economy toward transition strategies rather than to ultimate visions of an energy infrastructure markedly different from the one now in place.'</p><p>This report focuses on understanding how analytical system modeling coupled with actual data from previous alternative-fuel experiences could improve our understanding of the dynamic forces governing the transition to an alternative-fueled vehicle system.

Alternative Fuel Light-Duty Vehicles: Summary of Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Evaluation Data Collection Efforts Whalen, P.;Kelly, K.;Motta, R.;Broderick, J. 5/1/1996 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a data collection project for light-duty, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) for about 4 years. The project has collected data on 10 vehicle models (from the original equipment manufacturers [OEM]), spanning model years 1991 through 1995. Emissions data have also been collected from a number of vehicles that were converted to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas. Most of the vehicles involved in the data collection and evaluation are part of the General Services Administrations's fleet of AFVs. This evaluation effort addressed the performance and reliability, fuel economy, and emissions of light-duty AFVs, with comparisons to similar gasoline vehicles when possible. This report includes results from emissions testing completed on 169 AFVs and 161 gasoline control vehicles. Alcohol vehicles in general indicated equivalent or lower regulated emissions compared to reformulated gasoline. CNG vehicles did show significantly lower emissions than gasoline vehicles. Preliminary emissions results from vehicles that have undergone aftermarket conversion are not as promising as for OEM AFVs. Conversion emissions in many cases were higher than the vehicle emissions were before conversion.

First Semi-Annual Report AFDC Light Duty Vehicles Wooley, R.;O'Connor, J.K.;Schrock, L.;Kelly, K. 10/7/1993 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This report analyzes all AMFA light-duty fleet vehicles in the AMFA I and AMFA II programs. It is divided into the following analysis sections: program monitoring and data quality assessment, fuel economy analysis, performance and unscheduled maintenance analysis, emissions analysis, and future considerations.

Alternative Fuels in Trucking, Vol. 3, No. 3 7/1/1995 Newsletters

Trucking Research Inst., Alexandria, VA

This issue includes articles on: 1) natural gas as a transportation fuel; 2) alternative fuels as an essential resource; 3) DOE's Clean Cities program; and 4) the Alternative Fuels Task Force.

Clean Cities News, Volume 8, Number 3 9/1/2004 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities News, volume 8, number 3, published by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative, opens with a feature on the recently awarded State Energy Program Special Projects grants66 grants worth $5.4 million were awarded to Clean Cities projects. Also included in this edition are success stories about NGV use in driver education courses, a New Hampshire public works department that runs on biodiesel, propane school buses in Portland, and the Clean Vehicle Loaner program in Texas. A technical assistance feature on airport AFV use; EPAct, Clean Cities, and industry news; and listings of upcoming events and resources round out this issue.

Alternative Fuel Trucks Case Studies - The Archer Daniels Midland Experience Norton, P.;Kelly, K. J.;Marek, N. J. 10/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs

This case study looks at operating refuse trucks on compressed natural gas (CNG). It covers fuel economy and range, cost, maintenance and repair issues, emissions, and lessons learned from a NYC demonstration project.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 5 Issue 3 12/1/2001 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of the Alternative Fuel News includes a cover story on alternative fuel school buses; a feature on biodiesel fuel and its progress in the marketplace; and a story on National AFV Day, a nationwide celebration of alternative fuel vehicles set for April 2002.

Children's Exposure to Diesel Exhaust on School Buses Wargo, J. Ph.D.; Brown, D. Sc.D. 2/1/2002 Reports

Yale University

In the United States nearly 600,000 school buses transport 24 million students to school daily. Each year buses travel 4.3 billion miles as children take nearly 10 billion school bus rides. If rides average 30 minutes in each direction, students will spend 180 hours on buses each year. Collectively, U.S. children spend 3 billion hours on school buses each year. More than 99 percent of U.S. school buses are powered by diesel fuel. Diesel exhaust is comprised of very fine particles of carbon and a mixture of toxic gases. Federal agencies have classified diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen. Benzene, an important component of the fuel and exhaust, is designated to be a known human carcinogen. Components of diesel exhaust are genotoxic, mutagenic, and can produce symptoms of allergy, including inflammation and irritation of airways. There is no known safe level of exposure to diesel exhaust for children, especially those with respiratory illness. This study concludes that the laws intended to control air pollution in the U.S. must be strengthened to protect the health of children in several important respects. First, fixed monitoring facilities do not capture the variability in air pollution experienced by children. Second, air quality inside buildings and vehicles is not regulated by the EPA. Third, tougher diesel regulations adopted by the EPA last year are insufficient to protect health. Fifth, routine emissions testing for school buses is not required by federal law.

Perspectives on AFVs: State and City Government Fleet Driver Survey Whalen, M.;Eudy, L.;Coburn, T. 4/1/1999 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy - National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This survey collected information from state government and city government fleet drivers who operate light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The survey posed questions related to AFV use, fuel use and availability, and performance. Surveys were completed with 468 state government fleet drivers, from 44 of the 50 states. In all, 403 surveys were completed with city government fleet drivers from 39 different cities across the country.

Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs - Fourth Annual Report to Congress 7/1/1995 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC;National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

Injector Spray Characterization of Methanol in Reciprocating Engines Dodge, L.;Naegeli, D. 6/1/1994

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO; Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX

This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit Barnitt, R. 1/1/2008 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is part of a series of evaluation from the U.S. Department of Energy through the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) at NREL. The role of AVTA is to bridge the gap between research and development and the commercial availability for advanced vehicle technologies that reduce petroleum use while meeting air quality standards.</p><p> DOE/NREL evaluated the original 10 prototype diesel-hybrid buses from Orion and BAE Systems operated by the New York City Transit Co. (NYCT) The next report focused on 10 new compressed natural gas (CNG) and 10 next generation diesel hybrid electric buses. In the present evaluation, the focus is on hybrid-electric transit buses (equipped with BAE Systems' HybriDrive propulsion system) purchased by NYCT in an order group of 200 (Gen II), and their performance during their first year of service.

Clean Cities Drive, Vol. 4, No. 1 5/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the Clean Cities Stakeholders' Conference and Expo; 2) Clean Cities corridors; 3) Raley's Supermarket's addition of a fueling station and LNG trucks to their fleet; 4) EV Market Launch workshops in New York, Richmond, Boston, and Atlanta; 5) DOE's comments on a proposed private and municipal fleet ruling; 6) new Clean Cities; 7) Dan Deaton; 8) a Clean Cities regional meeting that focused on corridors; and 9) a calendar of events.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 1 7/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: Ford liquefied petroleum gas-powered F-700 may set sales records; California considers fuel specifications; new ultra-safe LPG fueling nozzle; CNG 18-wheeler proves efficient; and alternative fuel alliance forms.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 7 Issue 2 8/20/2003 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of Alternative Fuel News, published by the Clean Cities Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), brings you a cover story titled 'Funds from Fines.' It focuses on a constructive ways to use proceeds from the settlement of enforcement cases against companies that violate environmental standards. Next is a story on CIVITAS, a clean-transport initiative affecting cities in Europe. And we interview Boone Pickens, an icon from the oil fields who is now a force is alternative fuels. Texas is propane country, but a new, publicly accessible LPG station at the Austin airport will be the first one of its kind in the central Texas. Minnesota is E85 country, and home to one man who will 'run' on ethanol-all the way to the State Capitol. In North Carolina, biodiesel attracts big bucks. And operators of State & Alternative Fuel Provider fleets have some successes to crow about-one on the West Coast, one on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. In AFVs for '04, new arrivals join the club as some stalwarts go away. And in southern California, a new $18 million transportation initiative is built on alternative fuels and a growing public interest in AFVs.

SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 6/1/2008 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report describes evaluation of operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus; a prototype hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus; and five new compressed natural gas buses. This is the third evaluation report for SunLine Transit Agency in Thousand Palms, California. This report provides an update to the previous reports (Feb 2007 & Sep 2007) and includes results and experience through March 2008. During the data collection period (Jan 2006 - Mar 2008), SunLine operated the fuel cell bus nearly 51,000 miles in service with an overall fuel economy of 7.19 miles per kg. For comparison, SunLine's CNG buses have an average fuel economy of 3.02 miles per gasoline gallon equivalent. During the same timeframe, the HHICE bus accumulated more than 43,000 miles with an average fuel economy of 4.34 miles per kg.

Atlanta's Kent Igleheart Brings Home 2001 Outstanding Coordinator Award 7/1/2001 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy - National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Kent Igleheart of the Atlanta Clean Cities Coalition received the Outstanding Clean Cities Coordinator Award at the 7th National Clean Cities Conference in Philadelphia.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 5, No. 1 8/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) industry and education experts working together to establish alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technician training standards; 2) developing liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuse trucks; 3) breaking down the barriers to alternative fuels; 4) the I-35 Corridor Coalition's support of LNG; 5) the Midwest Ethanol Demonstration Project; and 6) Detroit Diesel's development of a propane engine.

Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Emergency Responder Information 1/1/1997

Toyota Motor Sales, USA Inc., Torrance, CA

Toyota developed Emergency Response Guides (ERG's) to educate and assist emergency responders in the safe handling of Toyota alternative fuel vehicles that incorporate CNG, hydrogen, or high voltage electrical systems. The ERG's cover emergency response procedures in the following specific areas: vehicle identification; high voltage; hydrogen and cng gas systems; disabling procedures and warnings; extrication; and roadside assistance. Guides are available for the CNG Camry, RAV4 EV, Prius (Model Years 2001 to 2004), and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle.

Alternative Fuels in Public Transit: A Match Made on the Road 3/1/2002 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As alternative fuels compete with conventional fuels for a place in public awareness and acceptance, one of their most visible applications is in public transportation. Vehicles, particularly buses and shuttles, that carry people in large numbers, stand to gain much from using alternative fuels. Such high-demand fuel users can help sustain a fueling infrastructure that supports private autos and other smaller vehicles.

Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program Motta, R.;Norton, P.;Kelly, K.;Chandler, K.;Schumacher, L.;Clark, N. 10/1/1996 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO;Battelle, Columbus, OH;Univ. of Missouri;West Virginia Univ.

Transit buses represent one of the best applications for alternative fuels, which have already made significant inroads into the transit bus market. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, initiated a program to study the performance, reliability, costs, and emissions of alternative fuel transit buses versus conventional diesel buses (controls). This report comprehensively and objectively evaluates the reliability, operating costs, and emissions levels of all alternative fuels currently in use in the transit bus industry.

Airport-based Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets 2/1/2001 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

Airport-based Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets describes why the Airport 'niche market' is uniquely suited for the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Learn why ground support equipment and landside vehicles make such good candidates for alternative fuel use and how airports such as Denver International, LAX, and Boston's Logan have been successful in implementing AFVs.

Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Real-World Perspectives from the Federal Fleet Whalen, P 7/1/1998 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

Vehicles that run onfuels other than gasoline, or "alternative fuel" vehicles (AFVs), offer great promise for improving air quality and lessening our nation's dependence on imported oil. But if they are to fulfill this promise and replace traditional gasoline vehicles on a large scale, they must meed the needs of the people using them, and consumers must have access to"real-world" information about them. Do they drive as well as gasoline vehicles? Are their refueling stations as convenient as the corner gas station? Can we expect the same reliability that we've come to expect from our gasoline vehicles? How better to answer these questions than to ask the people who are actually running the AFVs? So in 1996, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national labortory, designed a nationwide study to capture the opinions of federal fleet managers and drivers onthe performance, reliability, driveability, and acceptability of AFVs. NREL put together this short brochure to serve as a "quick look" summaryof the surveys and their results.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 6, No. 3 3/1/1998 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on 1) Ethanol Fuel Demosntration in Hennepin County, Minnesota 2) EPA Revises Tampering Policy for Conversions 3) Evolution of the ATA's Alternative Fuels Task Force 4) John Deere Introduces Two new natural Gas Engines 5) Alternative Fuel Taxes Reduced in Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 6) EPA Reference Guide to Emissions Standards

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 6, No. 4 6/1/1998 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on 1) Cummins' Heavy-Duty Propane Engine Receives 1999 EPA CFFV LEV Certification

Perspectives on AFVs: State and City Government Fleet Manager Survey 2/1/1999 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of state and city government fleet managers.

A Guide to the Emissions Certification Procedures for Alternative Fuel Aftermarket Conversions 1/30/1998 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

Emissions certification is still relatively new to the aftermarket vehicle conversion industry. Many in the industry think that as soon as a vehicle is converted to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), it automatically runs as clean as or cleaner than it did on the conventional fuel. However, recent studies have shown that aftemarket conversions may not always reduce emissions. To achieve emissions benefits, the conversion equipment must be designed and calibrated specifically for the engine and emissions control system on which it has been installed, and the installation and setup must be performed so as to not adversely affect the vehicle's original emissions performance. The reason for certification, then, is to ensure that these criteria are met, that the vehicle continues to perform properly, and that it continues to satisfy all appropriate emissions standards throughout its useful life.

NYCT Diesel Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Final Data Report 4/1/2002 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio 43201-2693

Final data report focuses on the experiences gathered during New York City Transit's deployment of hybrid electric buses in its fleet.

Fuel Economy Test Procedures Alternative-Fueled Automobile CAFE Incentives and Fuel Economy Labeling Requirements - Environmental Protection Agency - 40 CFR Part 600 10/1/1995 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

This final rule amends the fuel economy regulations to include alternative-fueled automobiles. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) of 1988 includes 1993 model year and later alternative-fueled automobiles (passenger automobiles and light trucks) in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program on a favorable basis to encourage the manufacture of these vehicles. The AMFA provides these CAFE "credits" for automobiles designed to be fueled with methanol, ethanol, other alcohols, natural gas, or dual-fueled automobiles designed to operate on one or more of these alternative fuels and gasoline or diesel fuel. Under the AMFA, these credits are only available for automobiles that meet certain requirements regarding: alternative fuel content (e.g., for alcohol fuels, a minimum of 85 percent by volume alcohol), energy efficiency, and driving range. Neither the AMFA nor the final rule will affect automobiles that do not meet these requirements; such vehicles would not receive the favorable CAFE treatment. Alternative-fueled automobile labeling requirements are also specified in the AMFA. This final rule codifies the requirements of the AMFA in 40 CFR part 600. Recently, AMFA was amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to extend the CAFE credit to automobiles designed to operate on additional types of alternative fuels. However, this final rule does not include these additional alternative fuel types, as they were not included in the CAFE program at the time the NPRM was published and the final rule was developed.

Notes: Text of final rule to be published in the Federal Register

Addendum to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A 9/4/1997 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

The purpose of this document is to clarify and revise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "tampering" enforcement policy for motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines originally designed to operate on gasoline or diesel fuel and subsequently modified to operate exclusively or in conjunction with compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane).

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 1, Iss. 1) 9/1/1991 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the mission of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC); 2) Legislation; 3) People in the news; and 4) meetings and conferences

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 3 1/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) a debate over the LNG tax rate ruling; 2) incentives for clean HD engines; 3) LNG demonstration programs; 4) Cummins announcement of a new natural gas engine.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 6 Issue 3 1/1/2003 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of Alternative Fuel News, published by the Clean Cities Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), starts with 51 individual success stories. Alternative fuels activity is happening in every state and the District of Columbia. </p><p>Next, we explain how auto dealers selling alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) may benefit from contact with Clean Cities stakeholders. Cummins Westport is featured as a leader in natural gas technology development. And then there's Phill-a device being developed for residential refueling of passenger cars powered by compressed natural gas. </p><p>Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel has moved one step closer to alternative fuel designation. The production of ethanol is growing rapidly in the U.S. Alternative fuel projects on Long Island have thrived, thanks to federal Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) funding. A new study by INFORM makes the case for waste trucks fueled by natural gas. And one writer extols the virtues of AFV commuting.

Rolling Smokestacks: Cleaning up America's Trucks and Buses Mark,J.;Morey,C. 10/1/2000 Reports

Union of Concerned Scientists

This study examines how current and emerging technologies could be employed to limit diesel exhaust, thereby decreasing the public health threat it poses. Impacts on public health and global warming caused by exhaust from today's diesel trucks and buses are discussed.Technologies that could make diesel engines run cleaner are presented including natural gas, hybrids and fuel cells. The report also examines which technology might best be employed for each type of vehicle and what national benefits might be expected from conversion to alternative fuels and advanced technologies. Finally this report suggests how government regulation might help put these technologies on the road.

Notes: Hard copies of this document can be obtained from the UCS office at 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 for a fee of $7.00. Call (617) 547-5552 to order a copy or e-mail pubs@ucsusa.org.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 1, Iss. 2) 5/1/1992 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) new data bases in the AFDC; 2) the current status of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) light-duty fleet; 3) legislation issues; and 4) news from around the country

Revision to Addendum to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A 6/1/1998 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

The purpose of this document is to revise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Addendum to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A policy for motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines originally designed to operate on gasoline or diesel fuel and subsequently modified to operate exclusively or in conjunction with compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane).

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 1, Iss. 3) 8/1/1992 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: the emissions success of alcohol-powered heavy-duty engines; the AFDC plans to provide refueling map services; the alternative fuels hotline installed by DOE; a national energy strategy update; new emission data bases; federal fleet use of alcohol-fuel vehicles; and the first U.S. E85 fleet vehicles.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 3) 12/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) DOE's evaluation of private and local fleet roles; 2) CMAQ's support of AFV programs; 3) how to buy time; 4) the latest transit bus results; 5) an ethanol refueling handbook; 6) heavy duty manufacturers; 7) natural gas composition and vehicles; 8) Chrysler's discontinuation of NGV production for model year 1997; 9) Ford's continuation of AFV lineup with reduces prices; 10) Clean Cities in the air; 11) a House of Representatives natural gas vehicle task force; 12) the House Renewable Energy Caucus; 12) an alternative fuel vehicle incentive bill in Arizona; 13) ethanol Windstars; 14) and the use of alternative fuel vehicles at the Olympics.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 5, No. 2 12/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the development of an interstate clean transportation corridor; 2) a Congressional task force that is addressing natural gas vehicle R&D concerns; 3) a midwest ethanol demonstration project; 4) Caterpillar's introduction of new dual-fuel engines; 5) a report on gas composition issues for natural gas vehicles and fueling stations; 6) NGVC's testimony before the House Oversight and Investigation Committee; and 7) DOE's Biodiesel Research and Development Program's search for industry partnerships in the heavy-duty sector.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 1, Iss. 4) 11/1/1992 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the significant expansion of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in federal fleets; 2) the first U.S. ethanol bus program; 3) a study on compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); 4) new CNG packer trucks in New York; 5) federal agency plans to change fleets to alternative fuels; 6) DOE's heavy-duty alternative-fuel demonstration program; 7) NREL/DOE plans to support data collection on school buses; and 8) the Congressional passage of the National Energy Strategy.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 4, No. 4 2/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) New Natural Gas powered Trucks Available in 1996; 2) Truck Standards in the Works; 3) Cummins Announces New Natural Gas Engine; 4) LNG Pavilion to Travel the Nation; 5) Weight Limits Challenge LNG Adoption

Program Analysis Methodology Office of Transportation Technologies Quality Metrics Final Report 2001 Patterson, P.; Maples, J.;Moore, J.; Birky, A. 2/23/2000 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies

This report focuses on the projected benefits of the forty-one programs currently supported through the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) under EE/RE. For analytical purposes, these various benefits are subdivided in terms of Planning Units which are related to the OTT program structure. The scope of this report encompasses light vehicles including passenger automobiles and class 1 & 2 (light) trucks, as well as class 3 through 8 (heavy) trucks. The range of light vehicle technologies investigated include electric, hybrid electric, fuel cell, advanced diesel, natural gas fueled, and stratified charge direct-injection. A future distribution of light vehicle sizes, applications, and performance levels is calculated based on current vehicle stocks and trends, and consumer preferences. The heavy vehicle technologies investigated include hybrid, natural gas-fueled and advanced diesel. The effects of advanced materials technologies across all vehicle types are also analyzed.

Notes: This report is available in PDF format on the Office of Transportation Technology's Web site http://www.ott.doe.gov/facts/publications/QM2001.pdf

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 2, Iss. 1) 3/1/1993 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the inclusion of transit buses and operational data in the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC); 2) AFDC's information sharing with fleet operators; 3) preparation of a CNG safety video by DOE and NREL; 4) EPACT's expansion of the role of OTT and AFDC; 5) a concentrated demonstration program beginning in Atlanta; 6) the promising emission results of M85; 7) DOE expansion of light-duty vehicle emissions testing; 8) hotline responses to EPACT questions; and 9) funding for vehicle conversion and fuel supply services.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 6, No. 1) 5/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) EPA's redesign of conversion certification policies; 2) the introduction of an NGV incentive Bill in Congress; 3) the introduction of the Boxer Bill in Congress; 4) New Jersey transit's expanded refueling infrastructure; 5) a Sacramento group's efforts to increase awareness of EV benefits; 6) testing of hybrid electric buses by a New York R&D group; 7) the use of heavy-duty LNG vehicles at the L.A. Airport and USPS; 8) the introduction of a medium-duty NGV by DOE and USPS; 9) NGVC's council to support LNG; 10) EV charging sites in Arizona; 11) a fuel company's purchase of natural gas refueling stations; 12) the reduced cost of methanol in California; 13) heavy-duty alternatives from OEMs and rebuilders; 14) Chrysler's announcement of an E-85 minivan and gasoline-powered fuel cell; 15) Ford's provision of 15 E85 minivans for use in state and USPS fleets; 16) GM's announcement of CNG options in Sierra and C-Series pickup trucks; 17) DOE funding; 18) a Virginia company's CNG helicopters; 19) Clean Cities' addition of the first two Ohio cities; 20) the future of CNG in Philadelphia; and 21) the Clean Cities conference.

Perspectives on AFVs: 1996 Federal Fleet Manager Survey 7/1/1997 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of fleet managers.

Replacement Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Tehnical and Policy Analysis Pursuant to Section 506 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 7/1/1997 Reports

Office of Transportation Technologies

This report is the first of two technical and policy analyses required by EPAct section 506.

SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Study Summary Eudy, L. 3/1/2001 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

In March 1999, the Office of Technology Utilization's Field Operations Program began a fleet evaluation of CNG vans in the SuperShuttle fleet in Boulder, Colorado. The results for the evaluation were positive and the fleet is considering adding more alternative fuel vehicles in the future. This fact sheet summarizes the details of the study.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 2, Iss. 2) 7/1/1993 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the growth of the AFDC; 2) new AFDC software; 3) AFDC's provision of state AFV purchasing plans; 4) the WVU transportable lab; 5) the availability of heavy-duty emissions data; 6) the collection of heavy duty AFV performance data; and 7) the hotline's responses to tax questions.

Perspectives on AFVs: 1996 Federal Fleet Driver Survey 9/15/1997 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of fleet managers.

Raley's LNG Truck Fleet Start-Up Experience Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project Norton, P. 10/1/1997 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This report highlights the start-up experience of the project's first demonstration site, the Raley's Distribution Center in Sacramento, California. The Alternative Motor Fuel Act of 1988 requires the U.S. DOE to demonstrate and evaluate alternative fuels usage in the U.S.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 6, No. 2 11/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on Future Fuels for Heavy-Duty Trucks, LNG Tax Relief, the Status of the Federal Clean Fuel Fleet Program, and the Cummins Engine, which successfully meets EPA and CARB standards.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 2, Iss. 4) 1/1/1994 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: the AFDC/View version 2.0; map books of CNG refueling sites; protocols for data collection; quality assurance; GSA; public interest in AFDC; and hotline inquiries.

The Pierce Transit Story Case Study 1/1/1998 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

In 1986, Pierce Transit made a commitment to the future of the transportation industry and to the environment by deciding to put buses powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) into everyday service. This case study outlines the company's success and how it was achieved.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 6, No. 1 8/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) lessons learned from the biodiesel fuel test; 2) a grocery chain's use of LNG tractors on California roads; 3) using liquefied natural gas as a vehicle fuel; and 4) an LE-55 natural gas engine project which targets 55% efficiency and low emissions.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 3, Iss. 1) 4/1/1994 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) AMFA heavy-duty data which indicates that E95 and CNG fuel economies are virtually the same as diesel; 2) DOE funding of a heavy-duty demonstration program; 3) DOE funding efforts for a safe school bus; 4) hotline inquiries; and 5) the comparison of fuel economies of light-duty AFVs.

Impacts of Alternative Fuels on Air Quality Taylor, P. H.;Dellinger, B. 6/1/1994 Reports

Univ. of Dayton Research Center, Environmental Science and Engineering Group, Dayton, OH - National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

The objective of this project was to determine the impact of alternative fuels on air quality, particularly ozone formation. The alternative fuels of interest are methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. During the first year of study, researchers obtained qualitative data on the thermal degradation products from the fuel-lean (oxidative), stoichiometric, and fuel-rich (pyrolytic) decomposition of methanol and ethanol. The thermal degradation of ethanol produced a substantially larger number of intermediate organic by-products than the similar thermal degradation of methanol, and the organic intermediate by-products lacked stability. Also, a qualitative comparison of the UDRI flow reactor data with previous engine test showed that, for methanol, formaldehyde and acetone were the organic by-products observed in both types of tests; for ethanol, only very limited data were located.

The Relationship between Gasoline Composition and Vehicle Hydrocarbon Emissions: A Review of Current Studies and Future Research Needs 10/1/1994

Ford

This online report compares the relationship between gasoline composition and vehicle hydrocarbon emissions. It reviews current studies and identifies future research needs.

Notes: Copies of this document can be downloaded from the Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) Web site at: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/1994/Suppl-4/schuetzle-full.html

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 3, Iss. 2) 10/1/1994 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) emissions testing of Dodge Spirit FFVs; 2) the EPA's issuance of final gaseous fuel emissions standards; 3) the AFDC's new option for retrieving data; 4) emissions data which show varied results on 1992 CNG/gasoline conversions; 5) downloading files from the AFDC for non-internet users; 6) accessing the AFDC through the internet; 7) a new methanol video from DOE, NREL, and Los Angeles MTA; 8) an EPACT update; and 9) upcoming meetings and conferences.

Using CNG Trucks in National Parks 5/1/1998 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) has successfully introduced cleaner-burning alternative fuel (in particular, compressed natural gas, or CNG) transit vehicles, such as refuse haulers electric trams, to relieve traffic congestion and help to protect the National Park System's (NPS) natural resources and historic sites. As part of this effort, NPS and DOI are working with DOE to implement alternative fuels in heavy trucks to attain goals of environmental sustainability and efficient operation. This report outlines the steps required to put CNG trucks in operation in the NPS fleet.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 3, Iss. 3) 2/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) alternative fuel provider guidelines; 2) alternative fuel bus data available through AFDC; 3) federal fleet purchases; 4) heavy-duty AFV awards; 5) AFVs offered by OEMs; and 6) DOE incentives.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 5, No. 3 1/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) natural gas vehicles; 2) liquefied natural gas use in the Airgas, Inc. heavy-duty truck fleet; 3) the learning curve in LNG alternative fuel trucks; and 4) Christine Ervin's speech at the 14th National Natural Gas Vehicle Conference in Dallas, Texas.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 3, Iss. 4) 4/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) the DOE unveiling of an advanced natural gas vehicle; 2) the first report on fuel replacement goals; 3) new AFV technologies; and 4) CNG refueling sites.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 4, Iss. 1) 4/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: clean air cabs; the successful conclusion of the CleanFleet demonstration; the release of a propane video; and the CNG tractor run by the L.A. Times.

Alternative Fuel News, Volume 2 Issue 5 2/12/1999 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue of the official publication of the Clean Cities Network and the AFDC features stories ranging from remembering the last oil embargo to the niche market of alternative fuel taxicabs. The National Gas Vehicle Coalition is featured, along with the Louisville Clean Cities Program.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 4, Iss. 2) 7/1/1995 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: alternative fuels data center information available through Internet World Wide Web, CNG refuse clean up, Clean City questions, DOE scholarship winners, new AFDC database, and AFV numbers on the rise.

Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol. 5, No. 4 6/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

Alternative Fuel Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary Whalen, M. 5/1/1999 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

In 1996, Barwood Inc., a taxicab company based in Kensington, Maryland, committed to incorporating a limited number of CNG vehicles into its fleet. This fact sheet summarizes their experience with Ford Crown Victoria sedans, 10 were dedicated CNG models and 10 were standard gasoline models. Fuel economy and cost, maintenance costs, emissions, and total operating costs were compared for each type of vehicle.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, No. 4) 2/1/1997 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) Clinton's issuance of an Executive Order on alternative fuels; 2) passage of the Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 through Congress; 3) The introduction of an NGV incentives package by the House Natural Gas Vehicle Task Force; 4) a New York bond act for clean fuel programs; 5) California's veto of an AFV incentive; 6) a "Stealth Bus" in Los Angeles; 7) Ashland Chemical, Inc.'s switch to M85 Ford Tauruses in its fleet; 8) New York City's increasing use of alternative fuels; 9) Iowa DOT's blend of biodiesel in heavy-duty vehicles; 10) King County, Washington's use of natural gas in police fleets; 11) heavy-duty trucks on ethanol; 12) UPS's plans to double its NGV fleet by 1998; 13) EV charging sites in Arizona; 14) changes at the National Biodiesel Board; 15) alternative fuel refueling sites on the Web; 16) the U.S. Postal Service and the DOE's plans to introduce a CNG mail truck; 17) Clean Cities; 18) Honda's announcement of a natural gas Civic; 19) the rise of alternative fuel bus purchases; 20) Ford Motor Company's AFV rebates; 21) natural gas testing in U.S. Volvos; 22) the introduction of EV1s; 23) Nissan's use of lithium-ion in its electric vehicles; and 24) plans for cleaner off-road engines.

CleanFleet Final Report Vehicle Maintenance and Durability, Vol. 3 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motor fuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

CleanFleet Final Report Fuel Economy, Vol. 4 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alternative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

CleanFleet Final Report Fleet Economics, Vol. 8 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The costs that face a fleet operator in implementing alternative motor fuels into fleet operations are examined. Five alternatives studied in the CleanFleet project are considered for choice of fuel: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85, and electricity. The cost assessment is built upon a list of thirteen cost factors grouped into the three categories: infrastructure costs, vehicle owning costs, and operating costs. Applicable taxes are included. A commonly used spreadsheet was adapted as a cost assessment tool. This tool was used in a case study to estimate potential costs to a typical fleet operator in package delivery service in the 1996 time frame. In addition, because electric cargo vans are unlikely to be available for the 1996 model year from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), the case study was extended to the 1998 time frame for the electric vans. Results of the case study are presented in cents per mile of vehicle travel for the fleet. Several options available to the fleet for implementing the fuels are examined.

CleanFleet Final Report Summary, Vol. 1 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

CleanFleet Final Report Project Design and Implementation, Vol. 2 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motor fuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eighty-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration, information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

CleanFleet Final Report Vehicle Emissions, Vol. 7 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from CleanFleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in vehicle technology among the three vehicle manufacturers (Ford, Dodge, Chevrolet) and differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicles/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

CleanFleet Final Report: Executive Summary 12/1/1995 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, OH

CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 "control" vans operating on regular gasoline. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet's 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

Waste Management LNG Truck Fleet - Start-Up Experience Norton, P. 8/1/1999 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This report highlights the start-up experience of Waste Management's truck fleet.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 4, Iss. 3) 1/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: AFDC One-Stop Shopping for Emissions Data, New NGV's Pass Test, Federal Express Cleans Up, Heavy-Duty Cooperation, New AFV's from Detroit, A Clean Ride to School, Propane Vehicle Challenge

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 4, Iss. 4) 3/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: NREL Research Improved Technologies, AFV's Combat Smog, DOE Funds Testing of Natural Gas Vehicle, Hotline Assists Callers, More EV's in Federal Fleet, California Air Resources Board May Ease Requirements

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 1) 4/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) NREL testing conversions; 2) a new AFV acquisition rule for fleets; 3) federal fleets; 4) students helping to design better cars; 5) the release of training center standards; and 6) new AFVs on the market.

Demonstration of Caterpillar C-10 Dual-Fuel Engines in MCI 102DL3 Commuter Buses 1/1/2000 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, Goleta, CA National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO

The purpose of this program was to demonstrate the Caterpillar C-10 Dual-Fuel Natural Gas (DFNG) engine in an over-the-road bus application. Three new Motor Coach Industries (MCI) 102DL3 buses, equipped with Caterpillar C-10 DFNG engines, and one bus, equipped with a Caterpillar C-10 diesel engine, were operated side by side on similar fixed-route revenue service for a 12-month demonstration period (February 1998 to January 1999). The buses were used as part of the Clean Air Express Commuter Bus Program in Santa Barbara County, California. The performance and reliability of the DFNG engines were similar to that of the diesel engine, but the emissions results were mixed.

AFDC Update: News of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (Vol. 5, Iss. 2) 7/1/1996 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This issue includes articles on: 1) a report that alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) are approaching the performance and reliability expectations of gasoline vehicles among drivers of Federal fleet vehicles; 2) natural gas refuse trucks; 3) AFV student competitions; 4) advances in electric vehicles; and 5) new features on the AFDC's World Wide Web site.

Limited Progress in Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Reaching Fuel Goals 2/1/2000 Reports

General Accounting Office

with the first deadline approaching for EPAct's petroleum replacement goals the GAO was asked to review progress towards achieving EPACT goals. gao was asked to determine the progress made in acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and using altnerative fuels to meeting the act's fuel replacement goals. Also, GAO determined the impediments to using alternative fuel vehicles and the measures that can be taken to address those impediments in order to reach the act's replacement goals.

Sorting Through the Many Total-Energy-Cycle Pathways Possible with Early Plug-In Hybrids Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D. 12/1/2007 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Using the "total energy cycle" methodology, the report compares U.S. near term (to about 2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles. For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways: (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion; (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining. The report examines incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as oil sands, Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas, and ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The report compares such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including new coal boilers;integrated, gasified coal combined cycle;existing natural gas fueled combined cycle;existing natural gas combustion turbines;wood-to-electricity;and wind/solar. Also considered was a simulated fuel cell HEV and a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle.

Raley's LNG Truck Fleet Final Results, Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project Norton, P. 5/1/2000 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This report highlights the final results of the project's first demonstration site, the Raley's Distribution Center in Sacramento, California. The Alternative Motor Fuel Act of 1988 requires the U.S. DOE to demonstrate and evaluate alternative fuels usage in the U.S.