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Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

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Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2017 Bourbon, E. 9/5/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2017 and July 17, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 12 cents from $2.38 to $2.26; diesel decreased 8 cents from $2.55 to $2.47; CNG price is unchanged at $2.15; ethanol (E85) decreased 12 cents from $2.11 to $1.99; propane increased 1 cent from $2.83 to $2.84; and biodiesel (B20) is unchanged at 2.49.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.11 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.32 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2017 Bourbon, E. 5/17/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2017 and April 17, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 6 cents from $2.32 to $2.38; diesel decreased 3 cents from $2.58 to $2.55; CNG price increased 4 cents from $2.11 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 7 cents from $2.04 to $2.11; propane increased 3 cents from $2.80 to $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 8 cents from $2.57 to 2.49.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.23 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.36 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2017: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 4/18/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

2015 Bioenergy Market Report Warner. E.; Moriarty, K.; Lewis, J.; Milbrandt, A.; Schwab, A. 2/27/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2017 Bourbon, E. 2/27/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2017 and January 15, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 10 cents from $2.22 to $2.32; diesel increased 10 cents from $2.48 to $2.58; CNG price increased 5 cents from $2.06 to $2.11; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $1.93 to $2.04; propane increased 12 cents from $2.68 to $2.80; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 11 cents from $2.46 to 2.57.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.21 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2016 Bourbon, E. 12/1/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2016 and October 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 4 cents from $2.26 to $2.22; diesel increased 2 cents from $2.46 to $2.48; CNG price increased 1 cent from $2.05 to $2.06; ethanol (E85) decreased 6 cents from $1.99 to $1.93; propane decreased 8 cents from $2.76 to $2.68; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 8 cents from $2.54 to 2.46.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.16 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.29 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 11/22/2016 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition) Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.; Christensen, E.D.; Fioroni, G.; Moriarty. K.; Yanowitz, J. 11/8/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Eco Engineering, Cincinnati, Ohio

This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G. 11/1/2016 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards Kelly, K. 10/3/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2016 Bourbon, E. 9/19/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2016 and July 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 20 cents from $2.06 to $2.26; diesel increased 33 cents from $2.13 to $2.46; CNG price increased 3 cents from $2.02 to $2.05; ethanol (E85) increased 15 cents from $1.84 to $1.99; propane decreased 1 cent from $2.77 to $2.76; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 31 cents from $2.23 to 2.54.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.21 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2016 Bourbon, E. 6/8/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2016 and April 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 8 cents from $1.98 to $2.06; diesel decreased 10 cents from $2.23 to $2.13; CNG price decreased 7 cents from $2.09 to $2.02; ethanol (E85) decreased 2 cents from $1.86 to $1.84; propane decreased 8 cents from $2.85 to $2.77; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 18 cents from $2.41 to 2.23.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.04 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends 3/2/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

Renewable Fuel Standard Program: Standards for 2014, 2015, and 2016 and Biomass-Based Diesel Volume for 2017; Final Rule 2/12/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Under section 211 of the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to set renewable fuel percentage standards every year. This action establishes the annual percentage standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel that apply to all motor vehicle gasoline and diesel produced or imported in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. The EPA is establishing a cellulosic biofuel volume for all three years that is below the applicable volume specified in the Act, and is also rescinding the cellulosic biofuel standard for 2011. Relying on statutory waiver authorities, the EPA is adjusting the applicable volumes of advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel for all three years. The 2016 standards are expected to spur further progress in overcoming current constraints in renewable fuel distribution infrastructure, which in turn is expected to lead to substantial growth over time in the production and use of renewable fuels. In this action, EPA is also establishing the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel for 2017. Finally, EPA is setting the compliance and attest reporting deadlines for the years 2013, 2014, and 2015, as well as finalizing regulatory amendments to clarify the scope of the existing algal biofuel pathway. This final rule is effective on February 12, 2016.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2016 Bourbon, E. 2/12/2016 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2016 and January 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 37 cents from $2.35 to $1.98; diesel decreased 36 cents from $2.59 to $2.23; CNG price is unchanged at $2.09; ethanol (E85) decreased 32 cents from $2.18 to $1.86; propane decreased 5 cents from $2.90 to $2.85; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 25 cents from $2.66 to 2.41.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.11 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.44 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/3/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 1/7/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2015 Bourbon, E. 12/10/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2015 and October 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 47 cents from $2.82 to $2.35; diesel decreased 34 cents from $2.93 to $2.59; CNG price decreased 3 cents from $2.12 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) decreased 18 cents from $2.36 to $2.18; propane remained unchanged at $2.90; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 27 cents from $2.93 to 2.66.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.26 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.49 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2016: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/21/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Motor Fuel Excise Taxes 9/1/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado

A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

Biodiesel Basics (Spanish Version) 8/17/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2015 Bourbon, E. 7/31/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2015, and July 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 40 cents from $2.42 to $2.82; diesel increased 5 cents from $2.88 to $2.93; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.09 to $2.12; ethanol (E85) increased 23 cents from $2.13 to $2.36; propane decreased 3 cents from $2.93 to $2.90; and biodiesel (B20) increased 1 cent from $2.92 to $2.93.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $0.70 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis while E85 is $0.25 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1 7/24/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish Version) 6/9/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2015 Bourbon, E. 5/28/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2015 and April 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 12 cents from $2.30 to $2.42; diesel decreased 18 cents from $3.06 to $2.88; CNG price decreased 2 cents from $2.11 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) decreased 8 cents from $2.21 to $2.13; propane increased 1 cent from $2.92 to $2.93; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 26 cents from $3.18 to 3.92.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $.33 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.35 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2015 Bourbon, E. 3/17/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2015 and January 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased $1.04 from $3.34 to $2.30; diesel decreased 71 cents from $3.77 to $3.06; CNG price decreased 5 cents from $2.16 to $2.11; ethanol (E85) decreased 67 cents from $2.88 to $2.21; propane decreased 16 cents from $3.08 to $2.92; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 63 cents from $3.81 to 3.18.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $.19 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.82 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/11/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

Ethanol Basics 1/30/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 2 1/21/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Alternative Transportation Refueling Infrastructure in the United States 2014: Status and Challenges Greene, D.L. 1/13/2015 Reports

University of Tennessee, Howard H. Baker JHr. Center for Public Policy, Knoxville, Tennessee

Lack of adequate refueling infrastructure is a major barrier to the success of alternative motor fuels. A transition from fossil petroleum to alternative, low-carbon transportation fuels appears to be necessary to mitigate the adverse impacts of global warming, strengthen energy security and meet air quality standards. Finding effective combinations of business models and public policies to accomplish a transition to alternative fuels poses a new and difficult challenge. Focusing on highway vehicles, this paper reviews the motivation for transition to alternative fuels, the current status of alternative fuel refueling infrastructure in the U.S., the costs of such infrastructure and business models and policies that have been proposed to achieve a successful transition. The goal of this paper is to serve as a basis for innovative thinking and discussion rather than as a comprehensive analysis of the issue. Infrastructure for producing and delivering fuels to refueling stations is equally important but is outside the scope of this paper.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2014 Bourbon, E. 12/23/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2014 and October 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 36 cents from $3.70 to $3.34; diesel decreased 14 cents from $3.91 to $3.77; CNG price decreased 1 cent from $2.17 to $2.16; ethanol (E85) decreased 35 cents from $3.23 to $2.88; propane increased 1 cent from $3.07 to $3.08; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 17 cents from $3.98 to 3.81.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.18 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.73 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Increasing Biofuel Deployment and Utilization through Development of Renewable Super Premium: Infrastructure Assessment Moriarty, K.; Kass, M.; Theiss, T. 11/25/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

A high octane fuel and specialized vehicle are under consideration as a market opportunity to meet federal requirements for renewable fuel use and fuel economy. Infrastructure is often cited as a barrier for the introduction of a new fuel. This report assesses infrastructure readiness for E25 (25% ethanol; 75% gasoline) and E25+ (more than 25% ethanol). Both above-ground and below-ground equipment are considered as are the current state of stations, codes and regulations, and materials compatibility.

Using Recent Land Use Changes to Validate Land Use Change Models Babcock, B.A; Iqbal, Z. 11/14/2014 Reports

Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

Economics models used by California, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the EU Commission all predict significant emissions from conversion of land from forest and pasture to cropland in response to increased biofuel production. The models attrib-ute all supply response not captured by increased crop yields to land use conversion on the extensive margin. The dramatic increase in agricultural commodity prices since the mid-2000s seems ideally suited to test the reliability of these models by comparing actual land use changes that have occurred since the price increase to model predictions. Country-level data from FAOSTAT were used to measure land use changes. To smooth annual variations, changes in land use were measured as the change in average use across 2004 to 2006 compared to average use across 2010 to 2012. Separate measure-ments were made of changes in land use at the extensive margin, which involves bring-ing new land into agriculture, and changes in land use at the intensive margin, which includes increased double cropping, a reduction in unharvested land, a reduction in fallow land, and a reduction in temporary or mowed pasture. Changes in yield per harvested hectare were not considered in this study.

Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 11/3/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

Model Year 2015: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/30/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Combustion Chemistry of Biodiesel for Use in Urban Transport Buses: Experiment and Modeling Kumar, A.; Kim, D.; Omidvarborna, H.; Kuppili, S.K. 10/23/2014 Reports

Mineta National Transit Research Consortium, San Jose State University, College of Business, San Jose, California

Biofuels, such as biodiesel, offer benefits as a possible alternative to conventional fuels due to their fuel source sustainability and reduced environmental impact. Before they can be used, however, it is essential to understand their physical properties, combustion chemistry, and characterization of the exhaust due to a number of issues associated with fuel properties--for example, a lower heating value and higher cloud point than regular diesel. High viscosity of biodiesel may lead to poor atomization of the fuel spray and inaccurate operation of the fuel injectors, so, it may cause fuel injector problems. Biodiesel may produce high NOx emissions. Depending on the feedstocks and blending ratios used to produce the fuel, variations in chemical properties may also be an issue.

Notes: This copyrighted document is available to the public through The National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment 10/10/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2014 Bourbon, E. 7/31/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2014 and July 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 5 cents from $3.65 to $3.70; diesel decreased 6 cents from $3.97 to $3.91; CNG price increased 2 cents from $2.15 to $2.17; ethanol (E85) decreased 18 cents from $3.41 to $3.23; propane decreased 24 cents from $3.31 to $3.07; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 3 cents from $4.01 to 3.98.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.53 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.86 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Biodiesel Basics 7/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2014 Bourbon, E. 6/3/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2014 and April 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 31 cents from $3.34 to $3.65; diesel increased 8 cents from $3.89 to $3.97; CNG price increased 6 cents from $2.09 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 37 cents from $3.04 to $3.41; propane increased 19 cents from $3.12 to $3.31; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 5 cents from $3.97 to $4.01.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.50 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $1.17 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Effect of Accelerated Aging Rate on the Capture of Fuel-Borne Metal Impurities by Emissions Control Devices Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Lance, M.; Xie, C.; Toops, T.; Brezny, R. 4/1/2014 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Manufacturers of Emission Controls Assoc, Arlington, Virginia

Small impurities in the fuel can have a significant impact on the emissions control system performance over the lifetime of the vehicle. Of particular interest in recent studies has been the impact of sodium, potassium, and calcium that can be introduced either through fuel constituents, such as biodiesel, or as lubricant additives. In a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a series of accelerated aging studies have been performed to understand the potential impact of these metals on the emissions control system. This paper explores the effect of the rate of accelerated aging on the capture of fuel-borne metal impurities in the emission control devices and the subsequent impact on performance. Aging was accelerated by doping the fuel with high levels of the metals of interest. Three separate evaluations were performed, each with a different rate of accelerated aging. The aged emissions control systems were evaluated through vehicle testing and then dissected for a more complete analysis of the devices. Results from these experiments show that increasing the rate of acceleration impacts the amount of fuel-borne metals that are captured by the catalyst, which subsequently impacts the catalyst performance. Beyond a certain threshold, the acceleration rate creates an artificial mechanism for catalyst deactivation. In the range of acceleration rates that were examined in this study, these effects were primarily

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2014 Bourbon, E. 3/4/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2014 and January 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 11 cents from $3.45 to $3.34; diesel decreased 2 cents from $3.91 to $3.89; CNG price remained the same at $2.09; ethanol (E85) also remained the same at $3.04; propane increased 16 cents from $2.96 to $3.12; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 5 cents from $4.02 to $3.97.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.25 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.95 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

EPAct Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 3/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

FY 2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2/1/2014 Reports

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, , Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington D.C.

The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2013 Annual Progress Report discusses the potential benefits of advanced fuel and lubricant technologies including energy security, environmental sustainability and economic improvement.

Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? 1/8/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

Alternative Fuel Vehicle & Fueling Infrastructure Deployment Barriers & the Potential Role of Private Sector Financial Solutions Dougherty, S.; Nigro, N. 12/31/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This paper examines how private financing can address the barriers to demand facing electric, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their related fueling infrastructure. Starting with a review of the state of the market, it covers significant barriers to market demand and barriers for private investors and concludes with a review of innovative finance options used in other sectors that could be applied to the alternative fuel vehicle market.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October, 2013 Bourbon, E. 12/3/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 4, 2013 and October 18, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 20 cents from $3.65 to $3.45; diesel remained the same at $3.91; CNG price has decreased 5 cents, from $2.14 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) has decreased 19 cents from $3.23 to $3.04; propane increased 23 cents from $2.73 to $2.96; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 13 cents from $3.89 to $4.02.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.36 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $0.22 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2014: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 11/25/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Advanced Biofuel Market Report 2013; Capacity through 2016 Solecki, M.; Scodel, A.; Epstein, B. 9/1/2013 Reports

Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2), San Francisco, California; Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

This report catalogs the growth and challenges of the advanced biofuel industry and provides updates on developments since the publication of last year's report in 2012. The scope of this work includes active advanced biofuel projects in the United States and Canada. Each project included in this report achieves at least a 50% reduction in carbon intensity relative to a petroleum baseline, using the direct and indirect effects as measured by the California Air Resources Board.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July, 2013 Babcock, S. 8/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 12, 2013 and July 26, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 6 cents from $3.59 to $3.65; diesel has decreased 8 cents from $3.99 to $3.91; CNG price has increased 4 cents, from $2.10 to $2.14; ethanol (E85) has decreased 7 cents from $3.30 to $3.23; propane in unchanged at $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 22 cents from $4.11 to $3.89.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.51 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $0.92 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Light-Duty Vehicle and Fuel Pathways: A Synthesis of Recent Research Nigro, N.; Jiang, S. 7/19/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

Transitioning to a cleaner fleet of advanced vehicles powered by electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels or petroleum products can yield a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum consumption. A meaningful assessment of the comparative merits of these alternate fuel pathways requires a solid understanding of their technological potential to reduce emissions. Available studies evaluating full lifecycle emissions rely on various assumptions of that potential and yield a wide range of results. This brief summarizes and synthesizes the results of several recent studies and presents the full range of greenhouse gas emission estimates for each type of advanced vehicle and fuel. It also explains the reasons these estimates vary so widely and identifies opportunities for future analyses that use a consistent set of scenarios with transparent assumptions in order to compare the greenhouse gas impacts of fuel and vehicle pathways.

FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 6/21/2013 Reports

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, , Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington D.C.

The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2012 Annual Progress Report discusses the potential benefits of advanced fuel and lubricant technologies including energy security, environmental sustainability and economic improvement.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W. 4/8/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan; Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association, Washington, DC; University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

Notes: Posted with permission. Presented at the SAE 2013 World Congress and Exhibition, 16-18 April 2013, Detroit, Michigan.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios. Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W. 4/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April, 2013 Babcock, S. 4/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between March 29, 2013 and April 12, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 30 cents from $3.29 to $3.59; diesel has increased 3 cents from $3.96 to $3.99; CNG price is unchanged, remaining $2.10; ethanol (E85) has increase 13 cents from $3.17 to $3.30; propane has increased 5 cents from $2.68 to $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 6 cents from $4.05 to $4.11.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.49 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.07 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A. 3/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January, 2013 Babcock, S. 2/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 10, 2013 and January 25, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 53 cents from $3.82 to $3.29; diesel has decreased 17 cents from $4.13 to $3.96; CNG price has decreased 2 cents from $2.12 to $2.10; ethanol (E85) has decreased 30 cents from $3.47 to $3.17; propane has increased 12 cents from $2.56 to $2.68; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 13 cents from $4.18 to $4.05.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.19 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.19 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2013 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2013 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2013 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas.

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels 1/1/2013 Books & Chapters

Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs) operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns over petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. This report assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80% across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. It examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, effective, and sustained but adaptive policies such as research and development (R&D), subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers such as cost and consumer choice.

Notes: This book is available for purchase from The National Academies Press.

Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles, Preprint Melaina, M. Bremson, J., Solo, K 1/1/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of California Davis, Davis, California; Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado

The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

Notes: Presented at the 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference, Austin, Texas, November 4-7, 2012

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October, 2012 Babcock, S. 11/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between September 28, 2012 and October 12, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 30 cents from $3.52 to $3.82; diesel has increased 38 cents from $$3.75 to $4.13; CNG price has increased 7 cents from $2.05 to $2.12; ethanol (E85) has increased 23 cents from $3.24 to $3.47; propane has dropped 8 cents from $2.64 to $2.56; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 35 cents from $3.83 to $4.18.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.70 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.09 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 10/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Biofuels Issues and Trends 10/1/2012 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC

Biofuels is a collective term for liquid fuels derived from renewable sources, including ethanol, biodiesel, and other renewable liquid fuels. This report focuses on ethanol and biodiesel, the most widely available biofuels. From 2009 to the middle of 2012, the U.S. biofuels industry increased its output and prepared to meet an expanded Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2), which requires increasing volumes of biofuels use. In 2011, the biofuels industry transitioned away from tax incentives for non-cellulosic biofuels, which expired at the end of 2011. Annual ethanol and biodiesel consumption, production, imports, and exports during 2009-11 are summarized in Table 1.

Transit on the Cutting Edge of Clean Technology 9/1/2012 Reports

American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC

This white paper reviews the substantial progress that transit agencies have made in investing in innovative clean technologies and fuels, such as electricity, hybrid vehicles, electric storage, biofuels, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cells.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No. 2 9/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July, 2012 Babcock, S. 8/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 13, 2012 and July 27, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has dropped 37 cents from $3.89 to $3.52; diesel has dropped 37 cents from $$4.12 to $3.75; CNG price has dropped 3 cents from $2.08 to $2.05; ethanol (E85) has dropped 23 cents from $3.47 to $3.24; propane has dropped 27 cents from $2.91 to $2.64; and biodiesel (B20) has dropped 35 cents from $4.18 to $3.83.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.47 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.06 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Annual Energy Outlook 2012; with Projections to 2035 6/1/2012 Reports

U.S. Energy Information Administration

The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (AEO2012) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2012 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2012 is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 29 alternative cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy. Many of the implications of the alternative cases are discussed in the "Issues in focus" section of this report.</p><p>Key results highlighted in AEO2012 include continued modest growth in demand for energy over the next 25 years and increased domestic crude oil and natural gas production, largely driven by rising production from tight oil and shale resources. As a result, U.S. reliance on imported oil is reduced; domestic production of natural gas exceeds consumption, allowing for net exports; a growing share of U.S. electric power generation is met with natural gas and renewables; and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions remain below their 2005 level from 2010 to 2035, even in the absence of new Federal policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2012 Babcock, S. 5/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between March 30, 2012 and April 13, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 52 cents per gallon from $3.37 per gallon to $3.89 per gallon; diesel has risen 26 cents per gallon from $3.86 to $4.12; CNG price has dropped 5 cents from $2.13 to $2.08; ethanol (E85) has risen 33 cents from $3.14 to $3.47 per gallon; propane has dropped 17 cents from $3.08 to $2.91; and biodiesel (B20) has risen 23 cents from $3.95 to $4.18 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.81 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.01 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No.1 5/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-iannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Thirty-Six Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans Lammert, M., Walkowicz, K. 3/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 36-month follow-up evaluation is part of a series of evaluations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Using an established and documented evaluation protocol, DOE - through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)- has been tracking and evaluating new propulsion systems in transit buses and trucks for more than 10 years. The DOE/NREL vehicle evaluations are a part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), which supports DOE's Vehicle Technologies Program.<p>This report focuses on a parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system currently being operated by United Parcel Service (UPS). The hybrid propulsion system is an alternative to the standard diesel system and allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately reduces petroleum use.

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory 3/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 3/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas.

Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance 2/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Golden, Colorado

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2012 Babcock, S. 2/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 13, 2012 and January 27, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 9 cents per gallon from $3.46 per gallon to $3.37 per gallon; diesel has risen 5 cents per gallon from $3.81 to $3.86; CNG price has risen 4 cents from $2.09 to $2.13; ethanol (E85) has dropped 5 cents from $3.19 to $3.14 per gallon; propane has risen 2 cents from $3.06 to $3.08; and biodiesel (B20) has risen 4 cents from $3.91 to $3.95 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.24 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.07 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Life-Cycle Analysis of Shale Gas and Natural Gas Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. 12/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis Pathways with GREET Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Palou-Rivera, I.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.Q. 11/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel na

Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans 11/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans and is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a follow-up evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation.<p> This project is part of a series of evaluations performed by NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation Team for the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA).

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2011 Babcock, S. 11/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between September 30, 2011 and October 14, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 22 cents per gallon from $3.68 per gallon to $3.46 per gallon; CNG price has risen 2 cents from $2.07 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) has dropped 7 cents from $3.26 to $3.19 per gallon; propane has dropped 3 cents from $3.09 to $3.06; and biodiesel (B20) has dropped 11 cents from $4.02 to $3.91 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.37 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.05 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines. Hilbert, D. 10/1/2011 Reports

Mercury Marine, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 15, No. 2 10/1/2011 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now features news and articles about Clean Cities coalition activities in promoting the reduction in the use of petroleum transportation fuel. The October 2011 issue features stories about idle reduction equipment benefits, coordinator profiles, the 2011 Clean Cities Stakeholder Summit and other coalition news.

U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan Johnson, C. 9/1/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 60% by 2025 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Ground-based transportation is responsible for 40% of USVI petroleum use, so the USVI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) set up a Transportation working group (TWG) to devise a way to meet the 60% reduction goal in the transportation sector. This report lays out the TWG's plan.

Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers Shea, S. 9/1/2011 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

Many niche market fleets, which operate specially designed vehicles that serve very specific functions, are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. One prime example is the refuse hauler sector, whose 136,000 trucks average only 2.8 miles per gallon, using more than 1.2 billion gallons of fuel annually in the United States. This sector could substantially decrease its petroleum consumption through the use of alternative fuel or advanced technology vehicles. Before adopting these technologies, a refuse hauler fleet should consider both the technologies' benefits and the fleet's individual needs.

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry Perlack, R.; Stokes, B. 8/1/2011 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy

This report, generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study, is an estimate of "potential" biomass within the contiguous United States based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory and production capacity, availability, and technology. In the 2005 BTS, a strategic analysis was undertaken to determine if U.S. agriculture and forest resources have the capability to potentially produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, in a sustainable manner - enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's present petroleum consumption. To ensure reasonable confidence in the study results, an effort was made to use relatively conservative assumptions. However, for both agriculture and forestry, the resource potential was not restricted by price. That is, all identified biomass was potentially available, even though some potential feedstock would more than likely be too expensive to actually be economically available.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2011 Babcock, S. 8/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 14, 2011 and July 29, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 1 cent per gallon from $3.69 per gallon to $3.68 per gallon; CNG price has risen 1 cent from $2.06 to $2.07; ethanol (E85) has risen 6 cents from $3.20 to $3.26 per gallon; propane has dropped 10 cents from $3.19 to $3.09; and biodiesel has dropped 3 cents from $4.05 to $4.02 per gallon. CNG is about $1.61 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 92 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 5/1/2011

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels?electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. </p><p>The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. </p><p>The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

Advancing Renewable Energy 5/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Agriculture

This brochure provides an overview of USDA's energy related programs and how USDA collaboration efforts are making a measurable impact in the world of renewable energy.