Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Electric-Drive Vehicles 9/11/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

2017 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 8/11/2017 Reports

California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the State's decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Fuel Consumption Sensitivity of Conventional and Hybrid Electric Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles to Driving Style Thomas, J.; Huff, S.; West, B.; and Chambon, P. 8/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation. The vehicle energy model focused on the limitations of regenerative braking in combination with varying levels of driving-style aggressiveness to show that this could account for greater FE variation in an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle. A closely matched pair of gasoline-fueled sedans, one an HEV and the other having a conventional powertrain, was chosen for both modeling and chassis dynamometer experimental comparisons. Results indicate that the regenerative braking limitations could be a main contributor to the greater HEV FE variation under the range of drive cycles considered. The complete body of results gives insight into the range of fuel use penalties that results from aggressive driving and why the variation can be larger on a percent basis for an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle, while the absolute fuel use penalty for aggressive driving is generally larger for conventional vehicles than HEVs.

Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 6/30/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/22/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary results from a fleet of 3 BEBs operated by King County Metro in Seattle, Washington.

Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston Eudy, L. 5/22/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

Implementing Workplace Charging within Federal Agencies Smith, M. 4/19/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland

This case study, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office, draws from available information and lessons learned from federal agencies that have piloted plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) workplace charging programs. It can be challenging for organizations to involve all the key stakeholders needed to develop a charging program, but engaging them at an early stage can simplify the process of setting an adequate plan for the workplace. Key stakeholders may include workplace charging managers, facilities managers, parking managers, employee PEV drivers, legal counsel, employee benefits managers, and union representatives.</p><p>Multiple PEV charging stations are available on the GSA schedule. Agencies will need to select the charging station type and design that is most appropriate for each specific worksite - Level 1, Level 2, or DC Fast Charging. In addition, the GSA Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) can help reduce upfront costs, which will help keep the reimbursement fees within the threshold of what employees are willing to pay.

EVgo Fleet and Tariff Analysis; Phase I: California Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 4/4/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Louisville, Colorado

Public direct current (DC) fast chargers are anticipated to play an important role in accelerating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and mitigating emissions. This project analyzed charging session data in 2016 from all 230 EVgo DCFC stations in California to determine the key factors that contribute to the electricity costs and alternatives that may be available to reduce those costs, and to provide guidance for future rate design discussions.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts Wood, E.; Raghavan, S.; Rames, C.; Eichman, K.; Melaina, M. 1/6/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Workplace Charging Challenge - Progress Update 2016: A New Sustainable Commute 12/12/2016 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

In June 2016, the Workplace Charging Challenge distributed its third annual survey to 295 partners with the goal of tracking partners' progress and identifying trends in workplace charging. This document summarizes findings from the survey and highlights accomplishments of the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge.

Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles - National Benchmark Report (Second Edition) Singer, M. 12/8/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report details broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Understanding consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to, and opportunities for, the broad acceptance of new technologies. The data detailed in this report represents the first two years of similar studies that are planned to be completed annually, allowing for tracking of public perception associated with PEV deployment efforts. This report is intended to support the evaluation of whether advancing vehicle technologies and changing vehicle availability align with evolving consumer expectations and interests over time.

National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I Melaina, M.; Bush, B.; Eichman, J.; Wood, E.; Stright, D.; Krishnan, V.; Keyser, D.; Mai, T.; McLaren, J. 12/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 11/22/2016 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G. 11/1/2016 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry Lommele, S.; Ryder, C. 10/10/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, ICF International; Golden, Colorado, Fairfax, Virginia

In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public wellbeing and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards Kelly, K. 10/3/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning Committee, N. 8/29/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

Employers considering whether workplace charging is right for their organization or employers considering how many plug-in electric vehicle charging stations to install will want to start by assessing employee demand. Partners in the Workplace Charging Challenge set a minimum goal of providing charging access for a portion of PEV-driving employees and a best practice goal of meeting all PEV-driving employee demand. This sample employee survey will help employers to assess interest in workplace charging, and determine the appropriate type and amount of charging stations to install.

At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles 7/13/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace Smith, M. 7/1/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated

Level 1 charging (110-120 V) can be a good fit for many workplace charging programs. For electric vehicles typically purchased by most employees, Level 1 charging often has sufficient power to fully restore vehicle driving range during work hours.

Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging Lommele, S.; Dafoe, W. 6/29/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Resources Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C.; and Newcomb, J. 6/15/2016 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

Several key forces are combining to accelerate the pace of EV adoption, such as customer interest, increased scale of production, and availability of charging infrastructure. This report focuses on the changing incentives and emerging technological options that are shifting the way utilities and other grid operators perceive EV charging opportunities. Together, these two sets of forces are creating new opportunities and increased scale for smart EV-charging solutions. It also covers the important questions that emerge for regulators, policymakers, and utilities.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Rocky Mountain Institute's website.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Global EV Outlook 2016 5/31/2016 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

In 2015, the global threshold of one million EVs on the road was exceeded, an achievement resulting from lowered vehicle costs, extended vehicle range, and reduced consumer barriers. However, EVs account for a small fraction of the global vehicle stock for almost all transport modes. This report aims to provide an update on recent developments in EV registrations, EV stock estimates, and the availability and characteristics of electric vehicle charging equipment. It also touches upon recent research and policy support.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Energy Agency's website.

Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type McLaren, J.; Miller, J.; O'Shaughnessy, E.; Wood, E.; Shapiro, E. 4/11/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

Drive Electric Vermont Case Study Wagner, F.; Roberts, D.; Francfort, J.; White, S. 3/21/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, Vermont; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is working to identify barriers and opportunities to plugin electric vehicle (PEV) adoption. The Department of Energy developed a case study with Drive Electric Vermont to identify the lessons learned and best practices for successful PEV and charging infrastructure deployment in small and midsize communities. This is a snapshot of the findings.

Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles - National Benchmark Report Singer, M. 2/2/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the form of gasoline and diesel. In order to make these technologies most appealing to the marketplace, they must take consumer sentiment into account. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround the advanced vehicle technologies of plug-in electric vehicles and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, provide mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results Eudy, L.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Post, M. 1/27/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 1/7/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In 12/1/2015 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

Costs Associated With Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment 11/30/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Englewood, Colorado

As more drivers purchase plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), there is a growing need for a network of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to provide power to those vehicles. PEV drivers will primarily charge their vehicles using residential EVSE, but there is also a need for non-residential EVSE in workplace, public, and fleet settings. This report provides information about the costs associated with purchasing, installing, and owning non-residential EVSE.

Plugging in at Work: How to Effectively Install, Share and Mange Electric Vehicle Charging Stations 11/2/2015 Reports

California Plug-in Electric Vehicle Collaborative, Sacramento, California

Charging stations for plug-in electric vehicles are a rapidly growing amenity being added to workplaces across California and the United States. Numerous workplaces have installed stations for their employees and visitors to use. These decisions have been supported by a recent Idaho National Laboratory study, which concluded that "charging infrastructure should be focused at homes, workplaces and public 'hot spots' that serve multiple venues. When charged by drivers, battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles achieve significant petroleum reductions while meeting the public's everyday driving needs."</p><p>Through workplace charging installations, businesses have learned new lessons and established best practices. Workplaces have researched charging options and developed plans, chosen appropriate charging systems, followed installation directions and established policies and procedures. Many workplaces are continuing their efforts by evaluating their plans.</p><p> New challenges and creative solutions have emerged as more charging stations are being installed and workplaces plan for future growth. This document describes some of these challenges and shares solutions developed by workplaces. Each section provides guidance and highlights additional resources and tools developed to complement the guidance.

Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis Francfort, J.; Bennett, B.; Carlson, R.; Garretson, T.; Gourley, L.; Karner, D.; Kirkpatrick, M.; McGuire, P.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Salisbury, S.; Schey, S.; Smart, J.; White, S.; Wishart, J. 9/29/2015 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona; Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, Arizona

Widespread adoption of PEVs has the potential to significantly reduce the United States transportation petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, barriers to adoption remain. One of the most commonly cited barriers is the need for public charging infrastructure that would allow PEV drivers to recharge their vehicles. Questions include: how many and what kind of charging stations are needed and where and how often will PEV drivers choose to charge? </p><p> To answer those questions, the Department of Energy launched five American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) projects: 1.) ChargePoint America - PEV Charging Infrastructure Demonstration; 2. Chrysler Ram PEV Pickup - PEV Demonstration; 3.) General Motors Chevrolet Volt - PEV Demonstration; 4.) The EV Project - PEV and PEV Charging Infrastructure Demonstration; and 5.) South Coast Air Quality Management District/Electric Power Research Institute/Via Motors - PEV Demonstration. </p><p> This report was designed to describe the scope and objectives for the five ARRA Transportation Electrification projects; describe technologies used in each project; document each projects' deployment and data collection rates; document how reporting occurred; document results; summarize results; and document lessons learned from each project.

Plugged In: How Americans Charge Their Electric Vehicles 9/1/2015 Reports

Idano National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Project and the ChargePoint America project, combined, formed the largest PEV infrastructure demonstration in the world. Between Jan. 1, 2011, and Dec. 31, 2013, this combined project installed nearly 17,000 alternating current (AC) Level 2 charging stations for residential and commercial use and over 100 dual-port direct current (DC) fast chargers in 22 regions across the United States. This report is a summary of the findings from these projects.

Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version) 8/17/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Spanish Version) 8/17/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

This is a Spanish-language handbook designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1 7/24/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Strategic Planning to Implement Publicly Available EV Charging Stations: A Guide for Businesses and Policymakers Nigro, N.; Welch, D.; Peace, J. 7/1/2015 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This guide, prepared for the National Association of State Energy Officials, answers questions that private investors and state and local agencies, such as state energy offices, may have in deciding whether and to what extent they should invest in publicly available charging infrastructure. It demonstrates that with continued public support in the near term, new business models could gradually make publicly available charging projects profitable for private businesses without additional government interventions.

Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations Chung, D.; James, T.; Elgqvist, E.; Goodrich, A.; Santhanagopalan, S. 6/18/2015 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report, developed with participation from leading industry and technology experts, provides perspective about the competitiveness contexts of manufacturing lithium-ion batteries (LIB) for the automotive industry. The report includes an assessment of published market studies, findings from a detailed bottom-up cost modeling of regional production scenarios, and an overview of qualitative factors that can influence factory location decisions.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish Version) 6/9/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

What were the "Best Practices" Identified for Residential Charger Installations? 4/1/2015 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

This lessons learned white paper is based on data from the EV Project which enrolled 8,000 residential participants to install and use residential electric vehicle supply equipment. Along with background information and key conclusions, this paper describes observations regarding permitting practices and best installation conditions.

Business Models for Financially Sustainable EV Charging Networks Nigro, N.; Frades, M. 3/3/2015 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

In May 2014, the Washington State Legislature's Joint Transportation Committee commissioned a study to develop new business models that will foster private sector commercialization of publicly available EV charging services and expand the role of private sector investment in EV charging throughout the state.</p><p>The results of this new study demonstrate that, with continued public support and EV market growth in the near term, it is reasonable to expect the private sector to be able to be the predominant source of funding for publicly available commercial charging stations within approximately five years.

Sample Workplace Charging Policy Workplace Charging Challenge 3/2/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

A sample workplace charging policy developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Workplace Charging Challenge.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers 2/9/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 2 1/21/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Supporting the Plug-In Electric Vehicle Market: Best Practices from State PEV Programs Powers, C. 1/14/2015 Reports

Georgetown Climate Center, Washington DC

This paper captures best practices in state-sponsored plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) buyer incentive programs, DC fast charging programs, and PEV awareness initiatives, as presented at the Transportation and Climate Initiative's 2014 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Workshop.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Georgetown Climate Center website

Alternative Transportation Refueling Infrastructure in the United States 2014: Status and Challenges Greene, D.L. 1/13/2015 Reports

University of Tennessee, Howard H. Baker JHr. Center for Public Policy, Knoxville, Tennessee

Lack of adequate refueling infrastructure is a major barrier to the success of alternative motor fuels. A transition from fossil petroleum to alternative, low-carbon transportation fuels appears to be necessary to mitigate the adverse impacts of global warming, strengthen energy security and meet air quality standards. Finding effective combinations of business models and public policies to accomplish a transition to alternative fuels poses a new and difficult challenge. Focusing on highway vehicles, this paper reviews the motivation for transition to alternative fuels, the current status of alternative fuel refueling infrastructure in the U.S., the costs of such infrastructure and business models and policies that have been proposed to achieve a successful transition. The goal of this paper is to serve as a basis for innovative thinking and discussion rather than as a comprehensive analysis of the issue. Infrastructure for producing and delivering fuels to refueling stations is equally important but is outside the scope of this paper.

Workplace Charging: Comparison of Sustainable Commuting Options Brown, A. 11/18/2014 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from employees' commutes, also known as Scope 3 emissions, is a top priority for many organizations interested in minimizing their carbon footprint. Scope 3 emissions are indirect GHG emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by the organization but are related to their activities, including emissions from an employee's commute. Employers interested in investing in GHG emissions reduction efforts may want to compare the benefits of workplace charging to other commuter emission reduction investments such as subsidized public transportation or carpooling. The GHG emissions reduction benefit of workplace charging per dollar is comparable to, and in some cases greater than, other commuting options.

U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge 11/17/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 150 partner organizations are accelerating the development of the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations for more than 600,000 employees at more than 300 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

Progress Report: Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles - Version 2.0 11/3/2014 Reports

American National Standards Institute, Washington, DC

In January 2014, the American National Standards Institute Electric Vehicles Standards Panel (ANSI EVSP) resumed work to assess existing and needed standards and conformity assessment solutions to enable electric vehicles and charging infrastructure to be deployed throughout the United States. This report assesses progress to address the standardization gaps identified in the Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles - Version 2.0 (May 2013). It also includes updates on significant standardization activity related to the issues identified in the roadmap.

Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 11/3/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

ADA Requirements for Workplace Charging Installation Workplace Charging Challenge 11/3/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination in public places against individuals with disabilities. As an employer installing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations, also known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), you need to follow special design guidelines to accommodate people with disabilities, as required by the ADA.

Workplace Charging Request for Proposal Guidance Workplace Charging Challenge 11/3/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

This Guidance provides a description of the types of requirements to be included in an employer's workplace charging request for proposal (RFP). This Guidance is not intended to be a sample or manual for acquiring electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), but rather to serve as a reference for an employer to consider when acquiring EVSE as part of a workplace charging program.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment 10/10/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

EPAct Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 3/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

Transitioning to Electric Drive Vehicles: Public Policy Implications of Uncertainty, Network Externalities,Tipping Points and Imperfect Markets Greene, D.L.; Park, S.; Liu, C. 1/17/2014 Reports

The Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

As a follow up to a 2013 report, Analyzing the Transition to Electric Drive in California, this report provides additional analyses regarding the transition to electric drive light-duty vehicles in California and other states that have adopted California's zero emission vehicle standards. In particular, this study estimates the effects of technological and market uncertainty as well as the timing and intensity of policies on electric vehicle development. The analyses in this report were carried out using the Light-duty Alternative Vehicles and Energy Transitions (LAVE-Trans) model.

A Guide to the Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities Community Electric Vehicle Readiness Projects Frades, M. 1/1/2014 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions

This report summarizes the activities, outputs, and lessons of a series of projects that are intended to advance the deployment of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) that was launched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2011.

Alternative Fuel Vehicle & Fueling Infrastructure Deployment Barriers & the Potential Role of Private Sector Financial Solutions Dougherty, S.; Nigro, N. 12/31/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This paper examines how private financing can address the barriers to demand facing electric, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their related fueling infrastructure. Starting with a review of the state of the market, it covers significant barriers to market demand and barriers for private investors and concludes with a review of innovative finance options used in other sectors that could be applied to the alternative fuel vehicle market.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

A Roadmap to Climate-Friendly Cars: 2013 Yawitz, D.; Kenward, A.; Larson, D. 9/1/2013 Reports

Climate Central, Princeton, New Jersey

An electric car is only as good for the climate as the electricity used to power it. And in states that rely heavily on fossil fuels like coal and natural gas for their electricity there are many conventional and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles that are better for the climate than all-electric cars today.</p><p>But that is just part of the story. Another critical factor is the carbon emissions generated when a car is manufactured. Emissions from producing the battery and other electrical components create a 10,000 to 40,000-pound carbon debt for electric cars that can only be overcome after tens, or even hundreds of thousands of miles of driving and recharging from clean energy sources.</p><p>This comprehensive state-by-state analysis of the climate impacts of the electric car, plug-in hybrid electrics, and high-mileage, gas-powered hybrid cars takes both of these factors into account - the source of energy used to power the car and carbon emissions from vehicle manufacturing.

Workplace Charging Challenge 9/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Fact sheet about the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge which is to increase the number of American employers offering workplace charging by tenfold in the next five years.

Best Practices for Workplace Charging 9/1/2013 Reports

CALSTART, Pasadena, California

This document is a resource for employers and employees interested in launching a workplace charging program at their place of business.

Notes: This publication is copyrighted by Calstart and is accessed at on the Calstart publications page.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Light-Duty Vehicle and Fuel Pathways: A Synthesis of Recent Research Nigro, N.; Jiang, S. 7/19/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

Transitioning to a cleaner fleet of advanced vehicles powered by electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels or petroleum products can yield a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum consumption. A meaningful assessment of the comparative merits of these alternate fuel pathways requires a solid understanding of their technological potential to reduce emissions. Available studies evaluating full lifecycle emissions rely on various assumptions of that potential and yield a wide range of results. This brief summarizes and synthesizes the results of several recent studies and presents the full range of greenhouse gas emission estimates for each type of advanced vehicle and fuel. It also explains the reasons these estimates vary so widely and identifies opportunities for future analyses that use a consistent set of scenarios with transparent assumptions in order to compare the greenhouse gas impacts of fuel and vehicle pathways.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

EVSP Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles, Version 2.0 5/13/2013 Reports

American National Standards Institute, Washington, DC

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) convened the Electric Vehicles Standards Panel (ANSI EVSP or "the Panel") to assess the standards and conformance programs needed to facilitate the safe, mass deployment of EVs and charging infrastructure in the United States. The decision to form the Panel was made at a meeting of key stakeholders in March 2011 which ANSI convened in response to suggestions that the U.S. standardization community needed a more coordinated approach to keep pace with electric vehicle initiatives moving forward in other parts of the world. This effort draws upon participants from the automotive, utilities, and electrotechnical sectors as well as from standards developing organizations (SDOs or "developers") and government agencies.

Analyzing the Transition to Electric Drive in California Greene, D.L.; Park, S.; Liu, C. 4/23/2013 Reports

The Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, Knoxville, Tennessee; The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

This report assesses the transition to electric drive vehicles under six alternative scenarios in California and other states that have adopted California's zero emission vehicle standards. Specifically, the report estimates the costs and benefits, barriers, and effects of public policies on the transition to electric drive light-duty vehicles. The analyses in this report were constructed using the Light-duty Alternative Vehicles and Energy Transitions (LAVE-Trans) model.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios. Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W. 4/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

U.S. DRIVE 2012 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 3/1/2013 Reports

U.S. DRIVE Partners

U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary government-industry partnership focused on precompetitive, advanced automotive and related infrastructure technology research and development (R&D). Partners are the United States Department of Energy (DOE); the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR)--a consortium composed of Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors; Tesla Motors, Inc.; five energy companies--BP America, Chevron Corporation, Phillips 66 Company, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two electric utilities--DTE Energy and Southern California Edison; and the Electric Power Research Institute.</p><p>By providing a framework for frequent and regular interaction among technical experts in common areas of expertise, the Partnership accelerates technical progress, helps to avoid duplication of efforts, ensures that publicly funded research delivers high-value results, and overcomes high-risk barriers to technology commercialization.</p><p>U.S. DRIVE partners selected the technical highlights contained in this document from hundreds of DOE-funded projects conducted by some of the nation's top scientists and engineers. Each one-page summary represents what DOE and automotive, energy, and utility industry partners collectively consider to be significant progress in the development of advanced automotive and infrastructure technologies.

A Culture of Corporate Stewardship: Global Leader Encourages Sustainability 3/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Advanced Energy

From energy efficiency to longer-lasting materials and products, Pentair, a global leader in pool and spa innovation, is seeking new directions in corporate environmental stewardship. The company has adopted a sustainability culture supporting innovative solutions to today's environmental challenges. When approached by employees at Pentair's manufacturing facility in Sanford, N.C. with the idea of providing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations for employee use, Pentair embraced the idea and demonstrated that employees, even those with longer-than-average commutes, could contribute to emissions reductions and decreased petroleum use through use of electric fuel.

Linking Corporate Sustainability Goals Beyond Direct Business Inputs And Outputs 3/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Advanced Energy

In today's corporate world, many businesses are tying their environmental impact and sustainability goals to current business measures. Some have established carbon offset goals, some have instituted process improvements to lessen their impact on the environment, and many are encouraging their employees to "be green." In Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Biogen Idec is taking their sustainability goals beyond direct inputs and outputs by determining how a new technology - unrelated to core business - can be employed to further corporate environmental sustainability efforts.

Leadership in Technology and Research: Supporting Alternative Energy in an Academic Setting 3/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Advanced Energy

With petroleum prices maintaining historic heights and a growing emphasis for more fuel/energy efficient vehicles, the transportation industry is in need of new ideas and innovation. On North Carolina State University's Centennial Campus, where academia and research blend to foster future technology advances and change, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are dynamically launching a new research platform as part of a living laboratory.

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels 1/1/2013 Books & Chapters

Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs) operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns over petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. This report assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80% across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. It examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, effective, and sustained but adaptive policies such as research and development (R&D), subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers such as cost and consumer choice.

Notes: This book is available for purchase from The National Academies Press.

Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment: Interim Report (2013) 1/1/2013 Reports

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC

This interim report by the Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment, was commissioned by the Department of Energy at the request of Congress to address market barriers to adoption of electric vehicles. The report focuses on near-term options, and specifically addresses infrastructure needs for electric vehicles; barriers to deploying the infrastructure; and possible roles of the federal government in overcoming the barriers. It also begins an initial discussion of the pros and cons of the possible roles.

Notes: This document is copyrighted by The National Academies Press. It can be located on their website

Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles, Preprint Melaina, M. Bremson, J., Solo, K 1/1/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of California Davis, Davis, California; Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado

The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

Notes: Presented at the 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference, Austin, Texas, November 4-7, 2012

Model Year 2013: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 12/13/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG vehicles.

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Harmonization of Road Signs for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations 11/1/2012 Reports

Clean Fuels Consulting, Washington, D.C.

This report details the state-of-play for international road signage for EVs, including the background and status of the creation of international on-road signage for electric vehicle charging stations at the United Nations where international legal recognition of signage is regulated.

The Car of the Future, Today Turchetta, D. 11/1/2012 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) have the potential to be a cleaner, more sustainable option for personal travel than conventional vehicles. But market penetration will take time.</p><p>Over the next few years, nearly all major automakers plan to put PEVs on the road. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates PEV production levels to be more than 1.2 million total through 2015. However, actual production and market penetration depend on many variables, including improvements in PEV battery technology, vehicle cost, the price of conventional fuels, and consumer behavior. This article discusses these challenges and what is being done at the Federal and State levels to overcome them.

Notes: This article appears in the Federal Highway Administration's bimonthly magazine: Public Roads, November/December 2012, Vol. 76, No. 3

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 10/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Transit on the Cutting Edge of Clean Technology 9/1/2012 Reports

American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC

This white paper reviews the substantial progress that transit agencies have made in investing in innovative clean technologies and fuels, such as electricity, hybrid vehicles, electric storage, biofuels, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cells.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No. 2 9/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Deployment in the Northeast; A Market Overview and Literature Review Zhu, C.; Nigro, N. 9/1/2012 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions; Arlington, Virginia

Electric vehicles have the potential to decrease our nation's dependence on oil and drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. In an effort to stimulate economic growth, decrease the United States' dependence on oil, and lessen the operating cost of personal transportation, the federal government issued a final rule in 2012 requiring new cars to average 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. This goal is ambitious and will be difficult to accomplish without significant numbers of alternative fuel vehicles. Several alternative fuels are currently available, but electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as the predominant alternative for passenger vehicles. While EVs are hitting the market and offer numerous advantages, such as zero tailpipe emissions, lower fuel costs, and the convenience of filling up at home, a number of barriers stand in the way of wide-scale EV deployment.</p><p>This literature review, prepared by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, provides an overview of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) deployment in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. The report assesses current electric vehicle and electric vehicle charging station technology, looks at the state of PEV markets, reviews the benefits of PEV deployment, and identifies the barriers and challenges to PEVs in gaining market acceptance. The literature review is intended to serve as a resource for consumers and policy makers who seek to better understand the nature of electric vehicle deployment in this region and related challenges.

Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report. Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P. 8/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Owner Survey 8/1/2012 Reports

California Center for Sustainable Energy & California Air Resources Board

In the first half of 2012, the California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE), in coordination with the California Air Resources Board (ARB), conducted the largest plug-in electric vehicle owner survey in the state's history. Reaching out to more than 2,500 California plug-in electric vehicle owners, CCSE received data from 1,419 unique respondents who provided information on vehicle use, charging behavior, access to public and residential charging infrastructure, fueling costs and household demographics. The data collected by CCSE, in support of the state's Clean Vehicle Rebate Project highlights California's commitment to promoting clean transportation solutions that improve urban air quality, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and offer the state's consumers viable alternatives to conventional gasoline vehicles. The results of the statewide CCSE and ARB survey confirm the early market success as well as the considerable consumer and environmental benefits of electrified vehicles.

Streamlining the Permitting and Inspection Process for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Home Charger Installations 7/1/2012 Reports

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Collaborative

The process of planning and executing residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) or charging stations required coordination of many participants. The resulting cost, timing, and complexity are dependent on how each participant manages his or her own steps and how effectively they hand off the job to each other. This report seeks to characterize key aspects of the installation process as they relate to permitting and inspection considerations, highlighting common challenges and questions that arise. Through discussion, examples and recommendations, it also seeks to address a troubling trend: the permitting and inspection process for charging equipment is becoming more onerous in some jurisdictions over time. This paper provides recommendations and references so that practitioners can design streamlined procedures for permitting and inspection in their jurisdiction.

Increasing Electric Vehicle Charging Access in Multi-Unit Dwellings in Los Angeles Balmin, J.; Bonett, G.; Kirkeby, M. 7/1/2012 Reports

UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs, UCLA Luskin Center for Innovation, Los Angeles, California

This report is a graduate student research project which aims to identify barriers, evaluate existing policies supporting home EV charging installations, and recommend policy options to address challenges to charging in multi-unit dwellings in the City of Los Angeles.

Annual Energy Outlook 2012; with Projections to 2035 6/1/2012 Reports

U.S. Energy Information Administration

The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (AEO2012) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2012 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2012 is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 29 alternative cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy. Many of the implications of the alternative cases are discussed in the "Issues in focus" section of this report.</p><p>Key results highlighted in AEO2012 include continued modest growth in demand for energy over the next 25 years and increased domestic crude oil and natural gas production, largely driven by rising production from tight oil and shale resources. As a result, U.S. reliance on imported oil is reduced; domestic production of natural gas exceeds consumption, allowing for net exports; a growing share of U.S. electric power generation is met with natural gas and renewables; and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions remain below their 2005 level from 2010 to 2035, even in the absence of new Federal policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Accessibility and Signage for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure 5/1/2012 Reports

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Collaborative

This report recommends accessibility standards for charging infrastructure installed as part of the new construction of facilities, and also standards for installations at existing facilities. The recommended standards distinguish between charging that is publicly available and charging that is restricted in access (e.g. residential). The report also recommends standardized general purpose signs to identify charging stations and direct users to the stations, and regulatory signs to designate the permissible uses of the charging facilities and to prohibit certain uses where necessary. All regulatory signs must be supported by appropriate rules, ordinances or policies.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No.1 5/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-iannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers 4/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts 4/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, and considerations for station owners, property owners, and station hosts.