Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

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Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jan. 2017 through Dec. 2017 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/16/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2016. This report extends the data analysis through December 2017. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020.

Charging Electric Vehicles in Smart Cities: An EVI-Pro Analysis of Columbus, Ohio Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Young, S. 2/7/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) worked with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to develop a plan for the expansion of the region's network of charging stations to support increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the local market. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection (EVI-Pro) model was used to generate scenarios of regional charging infrastructure to support consumer PEV adoption. Results indicate that approximately 400 Level 2 plugs at multi-unit dwellings and 350 Level 2 plugs at non-residential locations are required to support Columbus' primary PEV goal of 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast charging is expected to remain low (due to modest anticipated adoption of short-range battery electric vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range anxiety concerns by providing a safety net for unexpected charging events. Sensitivity analyses around some key assumptions have also been performed; of these, consumer preference for PHEV versus BEV and for their electric driving range, ambient conditions, and availability of residential charging at multi-unit dwellings were identified as key determinants of the non-residential PEV charging infrastructure required to support PEV adoption. The results discussed in this report can be leveraged by similar U.S. cities as part of a strategy to accelerate PEV adoption in the light-duty vehicle market.

Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010-2017 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 1/25/2018 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; US Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are among the fastest growing drivetrains in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the aggregate impact of PEVs is important when exploring electricity use and petroleum consumption. This report examines the sales of PEVs in the United States from 2010 to 2017, exploring vehicle sales, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and battery production.

Electric Vehicle Charger Selection Guide 1/11/2018 Reports

Redwood Coast Energy Authority, Eureka, California; Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, California; Siskiyou County Economic Development Council, Yreka, California; Local Government Commission/Civic Spark, Sacramento, California

The goal of this guide is to help site hosts and others learn about, evaluate, and compare the features of EV charging equipment to assist them in selecting a charger for their application. Additionally, this guide provides an overview of electric vehicle charger equipment, how it works, and considerations when making a purchase.

Navigation API Route Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment on Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data for Conventional Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint Zhu, L.; Holden, J.; Gonder, J. 12/22/2017 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The green routing strategy instructing a vehicle to select a fuel-efficient route benefits the current transportation system with fuel-saving opportunities. This paper introduces a navigation API route fuel-saving evaluation framework for estimating fuel advantages of alternative API routes based on large-scale, real-world travel data for conventional vehicles (CVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The navigation APIs, such Google Directions API, integrate traffic conditions and provide feasible alternative routes for origin-destination pairs. This paper develops two link-based fuel-consumption models stratified by link-level speed, road grade, and functional class (local/non-local), one for CVs and the other for HEVs. The link-based fuel-consumption models are built by assigning travel from a large number of GPS driving traces to the links in TomTom MultiNet as the underlying road network layer and road grade data from a U.S. Geological Survey elevation data set. Fuel consumption on a link is calculated by the proposed fuel consumption model. This paper envisions two kinds of applications: 1) identifying alternate routes that save fuel, and 2) quantifying the potential fuel savings for large amounts of travel. An experiment based on a large-scale California Household Travel Survey GPS trajectory data set is conducted. The fuel consumption and savings of CVs and HEVs are investigated. At the same time, the trade-off between fuel saving and time saving for choosing different routes is also examined for both powertrains.

Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports Johnson, C. 12/12/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36 Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G. 12/1/2017 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 11/14/2017 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Utility Investment in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Key Regulatory Considerations Allen, P.; Van Horn, G.; Goetz, M.; Bradbury, J.; Zyla, K. 11/13/2017 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, LLC, Concord, Massachusetts; Georgetown Climate Center, Washington, D.C.

The report provides an overview of the accelerating electrification of the transportation sector and explores the role of state utility regulators in evaluating potential investments by electric utilities in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. The report identifies key considerations for regulators, including the amount of charging infrastructure needed to support PEVs, ways that regulators can help ensure equitable access to charging infrastructure, and opportunities to maximize the benefits of utility investment in charging infrastructure.

The Barriers to Acceptance of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: 2017 Update Singer, M. 11/9/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the previous version published in December 2016, details findings from a study in February 2017 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J. 10/17/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

Enabling Fast Charging - Introduction and Overview Michelbacher, C.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham. A.; Carlson, B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A. Mohanpurkar, M.; Pesaran, A.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Tanim, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Zhang, J. 10/13/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with guidance from VTO, initiated this study to understand the technical, cost, infrastructure, and implementation barriers associated with high rate charging up to 350 kW.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 214-215) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - A Battery Technology Gap Assessment Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Jansen, A.N.; Tanim, T.; Dufek, E.J.; Pesaran, A.; Burnham, A.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Hardy, K.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Michelbacher, C.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Nelson, P.A.; Robertson, D.C.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Zhang. J. 10/13/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 250-262) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Vehicle Considerations Meintz, A.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Kreutzer, C.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Francfort, J.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Markel, A.; Michelbacher, C.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Pesaran, A.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Tanim, T. 10/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 216-227) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Battery Thermal Considerations Keyser, M.; Pesaran, A.; Li, Q.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Dufek, E.; Shirk, M.; Meintz, A.; Kreuzer, C.; Michelbacher, C.; Burnham, A.; Stephens, T.; Francfort, J.; Carlson, B.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Hardy, K.; Dias, F.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D. Jansen, A.N.; Tanim, T.; Anthony Markel. A. 10/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 228-236) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Infrastructure and Economic Considerations Burnham, A.; Dufek, E.J.; Stephens, T.; Francfort, J.; Michelbacher, C.; Carlson, R.B.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Dias, F.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Hardy, K.; Shirk, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Tanim, T.R. 10/10/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. extreme fast charging (XFC); electric vehicle infrastructure; battery electric vehicles; demand charges; total cost of ownership, economicsIn so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 237-249) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

From Gas to Grid: Building Charging Infrastructure to Power Electric Vehicle Demand Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 10/3/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

This report identifies the key hurdles that have inhibited the growth of charging infrastructure, and explains how they might be overcome, along with the best practices for siting chargers and designing electricity tariffs for EV charging stations.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Rocky Mountain Instutute website.

Enabling Fast Charging: A Technology Gap Assessment Howell, D.; Boyd, S.; Cunningham, B.; Gillard, S.; Slezak, L.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Nelson, P.A.; Robertson, D.C.; Stephens, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Michelbacher, C.J.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Tanim, T.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Li, O.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Zhang, J. 10/1/2017 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In this report, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory teamed with Argonne National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to identify technical gaps to implementing an extreme fast charging network in the United States. This report highlights technical gaps at the battery, vehicle, and infrastructure levels.

Electric-Drive Vehicles 9/11/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Melaina, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

Transportation Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Technology and Market Assessment Birky, A.K.; Laughlin, M.; Tartaglia, K.; Price, R.; Lin, Z. 9/1/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oakridge, Tennessee

This report focuses on electrification of government, commercial, and industrial fleets and provides the background necessary to understand the potential for electrification in these markets. Specifically, it covers the challenges and opportunities for electrification in the service and goods and people movement fleets to guide policy makers and researchers in identifying where federal investment in electrification could be most beneficial.

2017 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 8/11/2017 Reports

California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the State's decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Fuel Consumption Sensitivity of Conventional and Hybrid Electric Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles to Driving Style Thomas, J.; Huff, S.; West, B.; and Chambon, P. 8/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation. The vehicle energy model focused on the limitations of regenerative braking in combination with varying levels of driving-style aggressiveness to show that this could account for greater FE variation in an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle. A closely matched pair of gasoline-fueled sedans, one an HEV and the other having a conventional powertrain, was chosen for both modeling and chassis dynamometer experimental comparisons. Results indicate that the regenerative braking limitations could be a main contributor to the greater HEV FE variation under the range of drive cycles considered. The complete body of results gives insight into the range of fuel use penalties that results from aggressive driving and why the variation can be larger on a percent basis for an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle, while the absolute fuel use penalty for aggressive driving is generally larger for conventional vehicles than HEVs.

Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 6/30/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/22/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary results from a fleet of 3 BEBs operated by King County Metro in Seattle, Washington.

Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston Eudy, L. 5/22/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

Implementing Workplace Charging within Federal Agencies Smith, M. 4/19/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland

This case study, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office, draws from available information and lessons learned from federal agencies that have piloted plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) workplace charging programs. It can be challenging for organizations to involve all the key stakeholders needed to develop a charging program, but engaging them at an early stage can simplify the process of setting an adequate plan for the workplace. Key stakeholders may include workplace charging managers, facilities managers, parking managers, employee PEV drivers, legal counsel, employee benefits managers, and union representatives.</p><p>Multiple PEV charging stations are available on the GSA schedule. Agencies will need to select the charging station type and design that is most appropriate for each specific worksite - Level 1, Level 2, or DC Fast Charging. In addition, the GSA Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) can help reduce upfront costs, which will help keep the reimbursement fees within the threshold of what employees are willing to pay.

EVgo Fleet and Tariff Analysis; Phase I: California Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 4/4/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Louisville, Colorado

Public direct current (DC) fast chargers are anticipated to play an important role in accelerating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and mitigating emissions. This project analyzed charging session data in 2016 from all 230 EVgo DCFC stations in California to determine the key factors that contribute to the electricity costs and alternatives that may be available to reduce those costs, and to provide guidance for future rate design discussions.

Battery Electric Buses - State of the Practice Hanlin, J.; Reddaway, D.; Lane, J. 1/26/2017 Books & Chapters

Transportation Research Board Transit Cooperative Research Programs, Washington, D.C.

This synthesis report documents current practices of transit systems for deploying battery electric buses, including planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, and operations and maintenance. The report is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. It is also valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.

Notes:

This copyrighted National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine publication can be downloaded from the National Academies Press website.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts Wood, E.; Raghavan, S.; Rames, C.; Eichman, J.; Melaina, M. 1/6/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Field Evaluation of Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Trucks Prohaska, R.; Simpson, M.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.; Smith, K.; Walkowicz, K. 12/16/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report focuses on medium-duty electric delivery vehicles operated by Frito-Lay North America (FLNA) at its Federal Way, Washington, distribution center. The 100% electric drive system is an alternative to conventional diesel delivery trucks and reduces both energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific electric vehicle (EV) technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source. In addition to characterizing the in-use performance of the EVs compared to the conventional diesels, detailed facility load data were collected at the main building power feed as well as from each of the 10 EV chargers to better understand the broader implications associated with commercial EV deployment. These facility loads were incorporated into several modeling scenarios to demonstrate the potential benefits of integrating onsite renewables.

Workplace Charging Challenge - Progress Update 2016: A New Sustainable Commute 12/12/2016 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

In June 2016, the Workplace Charging Challenge distributed its third annual survey to 295 partners with the goal of tracking partners' progress and identifying trends in workplace charging. This document summarizes findings from the survey and highlights accomplishments of the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge.

Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles - National Benchmark Report (Second Edition) Singer, M. 12/8/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report details broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Understanding consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to, and opportunities for, the broad acceptance of new technologies. The data detailed in this report represents the first two years of similar studies that are planned to be completed annually, allowing for tracking of public perception associated with PEV deployment efforts. This report is intended to support the evaluation of whether advancing vehicle technologies and changing vehicle availability align with evolving consumer expectations and interests over time.

National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I Melaina, M.; Bush, B.; Eichman, J.; Wood, E.; Stright, D.; Krishnan, V.; Keyser, D.; Mai, T.; McLaren, J. 12/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry Lommele, S.; Ryder, C. 10/10/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, ICF International; Golden, Colorado, Fairfax, Virginia

In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public wellbeing and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards Kelly, K. 10/3/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning Committee, N. 8/29/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

Employers considering whether workplace charging is right for their organization or employers considering how many plug-in electric vehicle charging stations to install will want to start by assessing employee demand. Partners in the Workplace Charging Challenge set a minimum goal of providing charging access for a portion of PEV-driving employees and a best practice goal of meeting all PEV-driving employee demand. This sample employee survey will help employers to assess interest in workplace charging, and determine the appropriate type and amount of charging stations to install.

At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles 7/13/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace Smith, M. 7/1/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated

Level 1 charging (110-120 V) can be a good fit for many workplace charging programs. For electric vehicles typically purchased by most employees, Level 1 charging often has sufficient power to fully restore vehicle driving range during work hours.

Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging Lommele, S.; Dafoe, W. 6/29/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Resources Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C.; and Newcomb, J. 6/15/2016 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

Several key forces are combining to accelerate the pace of EV adoption, such as customer interest, increased scale of production, and availability of charging infrastructure. This report focuses on the changing incentives and emerging technological options that are shifting the way utilities and other grid operators perceive EV charging opportunities. Together, these two sets of forces are creating new opportunities and increased scale for smart EV-charging solutions. It also covers the important questions that emerge for regulators, policymakers, and utilities.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Rocky Mountain Institute's website.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Global EV Outlook 2016 5/31/2016 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

In 2015, the global threshold of one million EVs on the road was exceeded, an achievement resulting from lowered vehicle costs, extended vehicle range, and reduced consumer barriers. However, EVs account for a small fraction of the global vehicle stock for almost all transport modes. This report aims to provide an update on recent developments in EV registrations, EV stock estimates, and the availability and characteristics of electric vehicle charging equipment. It also touches upon recent research and policy support.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Energy Agency's website.

Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type McLaren, J.; Miller, J.; O'Shaughnessy, E.; Wood, E.; Shapiro, E. 4/11/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies Moawad, A.; Kim, N.; Shidore, N.; Rousseau, A. 3/28/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports new technologies to increase energy security in the transportation sector at a critical time for global petroleum supply, demand, and pricing. VTO works in collaboration with industry and research organizations to identify the priority areas of research needed to develop advanced vehicle technologies to reduce and eventually eliminate petroleum use, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide from carbon-based fuels. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the benefits of the DOE-VTO for a wide range of vehicle applications, powertrain configurations and component technologies for different timeframes and quantify the potential future petroleum displacement up to 2045, as well as the cost evolution. While it is not possible to simulate all the different combinations, more than 2000 vehicles were simulated in the study.

Drive Electric Vermont Case Study Wagner, F.; Roberts, D.; Francfort, J.; White, S. 3/21/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, Vermont; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is working to identify barriers and opportunities to plugin electric vehicle (PEV) adoption. The Department of Energy developed a case study with Drive Electric Vermont to identify the lessons learned and best practices for successful PEV and charging infrastructure deployment in small and midsize communities. This is a snapshot of the findings.

Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles - National Benchmark Report Singer, M. 2/2/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the form of gasoline and diesel. In order to make these technologies most appealing to the marketplace, they must take consumer sentiment into account. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround the advanced vehicle technologies of plug-in electric vehicles and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, provide mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results Eudy, L.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Post, M. 1/27/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 1/7/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In 12/1/2015 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

Costs Associated With Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment 11/30/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Englewood, Colorado

As more drivers purchase plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), there is a growing need for a network of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to provide power to those vehicles. PEV drivers will primarily charge their vehicles using residential EVSE, but there is also a need for non-residential EVSE in workplace, public, and fleet settings. This report provides information about the costs associated with purchasing, installing, and owning non-residential EVSE.

Plugging in at Work: How to Effectively Install, Share and Mange Electric Vehicle Charging Stations 11/2/2015 Reports

California Plug-in Electric Vehicle Collaborative, Sacramento, California

Charging stations for plug-in electric vehicles are a rapidly growing amenity being added to workplaces across California and the United States. Numerous workplaces have installed stations for their employees and visitors to use. These decisions have been supported by a recent Idaho National Laboratory study, which concluded that "charging infrastructure should be focused at homes, workplaces and public 'hot spots' that serve multiple venues. When charged by drivers, battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles achieve significant petroleum reductions while meeting the public's everyday driving needs."</p><p>Through workplace charging installations, businesses have learned new lessons and established best practices. Workplaces have researched charging options and developed plans, chosen appropriate charging systems, followed installation directions and established policies and procedures. Many workplaces are continuing their efforts by evaluating their plans.</p><p> New challenges and creative solutions have emerged as more charging stations are being installed and workplaces plan for future growth. This document describes some of these challenges and shares solutions developed by workplaces. Each section provides guidance and highlights additional resources and tools developed to complement the guidance.

Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis Francfort, J.; Bennett, B.; Carlson, R.; Garretson, T.; Gourley, L.; Karner, D.; Kirkpatrick, M.; McGuire, P.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Salisbury, S.; Schey, S.; Smart, J.; White, S.; Wishart, J. 9/29/2015 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona; Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, Arizona

Widespread adoption of PEVs has the potential to significantly reduce the United States transportation petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, barriers to adoption remain. One of the most commonly cited barriers is the need for public charging infrastructure that would allow PEV drivers to recharge their vehicles. Questions include: how many and what kind of charging stations are needed and where and how often will PEV drivers choose to charge? </p><p> To answer those questions, the Department of Energy launched five American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) projects: 1.) ChargePoint America - PEV Charging Infrastructure Demonstration; 2. Chrysler Ram PEV Pickup - PEV Demonstration; 3.) General Motors Chevrolet Volt - PEV Demonstration; 4.) The EV Project - PEV and PEV Charging Infrastructure Demonstration; and 5.) South Coast Air Quality Management District/Electric Power Research Institute/Via Motors - PEV Demonstration. </p><p> This report was designed to describe the scope and objectives for the five ARRA Transportation Electrification projects; describe technologies used in each project; document each projects' deployment and data collection rates; document how reporting occurred; document results; summarize results; and document lessons learned from each project.

Plugged In: How Americans Charge Their Electric Vehicles 9/1/2015 Reports

Idano National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Project and the ChargePoint America project, combined, formed the largest PEV infrastructure demonstration in the world. Between Jan. 1, 2011, and Dec. 31, 2013, this combined project installed nearly 17,000 alternating current (AC) Level 2 charging stations for residential and commercial use and over 100 dual-port direct current (DC) fast chargers in 22 regions across the United States. This report is a summary of the findings from these projects.

Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version) 8/17/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Spanish Version) 8/17/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

This is a Spanish-language handbook designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

Challenges and Opportunities for Transactive Control of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: A Reference Guide Jin, X.; Meintz, A. 7/29/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report seeks to characterize the opportunities and challenges that arise in developing a transactive control strategy for grid and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) integration in various use-case scenarios in a way that provides end-user, energy market, grid, and societal benefits. This report serves as a reference guide for stakeholders in the grid-EVSE integration area, illustrates potential implementations, and identifies a high-value research project for overcoming the barriers and unlocking the benefits of transactive controls of EVSE.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1 7/24/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Strategic Planning to Implement Publicly Available EV Charging Stations: A Guide for Businesses and Policymakers Nigro, N.; Welch, D.; Peace, J. 7/1/2015 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This guide, prepared for the National Association of State Energy Officials, answers questions that private investors and state and local agencies, such as state energy offices, may have in deciding whether and to what extent they should invest in publicly available charging infrastructure. It demonstrates that with continued public support in the near term, new business models could gradually make publicly available charging projects profitable for private businesses without additional government interventions.

Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations Chung, D.; James, T.; Elgqvist, E.; Goodrich, A.; Santhanagopalan, S. 6/18/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report, developed with participation from leading industry and technology experts, provides perspective about the competitiveness contexts of manufacturing lithium-ion batteries (LIB) for the automotive industry. The report includes an assessment of published market studies, findings from a detailed bottom-up cost modeling of regional production scenarios, and an overview of qualitative factors that can influence factory location decisions.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish Version) 6/9/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

What were the "Best Practices" Identified for Residential Charger Installations? 4/1/2015 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

This lessons learned white paper is based on data from the EV Project which enrolled 8,000 residential participants to install and use residential electric vehicle supply equipment. Along with background information and key conclusions, this paper describes observations regarding permitting practices and best installation conditions.

Business Models for Financially Sustainable EV Charging Networks Nigro, N.; Frades, M. 3/3/2015 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

In May 2014, the Washington State Legislature's Joint Transportation Committee commissioned a study to develop new business models that will foster private sector commercialization of publicly available EV charging services and expand the role of private sector investment in EV charging throughout the state.</p><p>The results of this new study demonstrate that, with continued public support and EV market growth in the near term, it is reasonable to expect the private sector to be able to be the predominant source of funding for publicly available commercial charging stations within approximately five years.

Sample Workplace Charging Policy Workplace Charging Challenge 3/2/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

A sample workplace charging policy developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Workplace Charging Challenge.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers 2/9/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

Electric Vehicle Charging Technology Analysis and Standards Kettles, D. 2/1/2015 Reports

Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, Florida

This report accesses the technologies and standards associated with plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), and the related infrastructure. It provides a review of the current and emerging EVSE technologies and an assessment of the common codes and standards associated with EVSE. The report also evaluates the barriers and challenges of deploying an expanded network of PEV charging stations in the United States and makes recommendations to mitigate the challenges of deploying the infrastructure.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 2 1/21/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Supporting the Plug-In Electric Vehicle Market: Best Practices from State PEV Programs Powers, C. 1/14/2015 Reports

Georgetown Climate Center, Washington DC

This paper captures best practices in state-sponsored plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) buyer incentive programs, DC fast charging programs, and PEV awareness initiatives, as presented at the Transportation and Climate Initiative's 2014 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Workshop.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Georgetown Climate Center website

Alternative Transportation Refueling Infrastructure in the United States 2014: Status and Challenges Greene, D.L. 1/13/2015 Reports

University of Tennessee, Howard H. Baker JHr. Center for Public Policy, Knoxville, Tennessee

Lack of adequate refueling infrastructure is a major barrier to the success of alternative motor fuels. A transition from fossil petroleum to alternative, low-carbon transportation fuels appears to be necessary to mitigate the adverse impacts of global warming, strengthen energy security and meet air quality standards. Finding effective combinations of business models and public policies to accomplish a transition to alternative fuels poses a new and difficult challenge. Focusing on highway vehicles, this paper reviews the motivation for transition to alternative fuels, the current status of alternative fuel refueling infrastructure in the U.S., the costs of such infrastructure and business models and policies that have been proposed to achieve a successful transition. The goal of this paper is to serve as a basis for innovative thinking and discussion rather than as a comprehensive analysis of the issue. Infrastructure for producing and delivering fuels to refueling stations is equally important but is outside the scope of this paper.

Workplace Charging: Comparison of Sustainable Commuting Options Brown, A. 11/18/2014 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from employees' commutes, also known as Scope 3 emissions, is a top priority for many organizations interested in minimizing their carbon footprint. Scope 3 emissions are indirect GHG emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by the organization but are related to their activities, including emissions from an employee's commute. Employers interested in investing in GHG emissions reduction efforts may want to compare the benefits of workplace charging to other commuter emission reduction investments such as subsidized public transportation or carpooling. The GHG emissions reduction benefit of workplace charging per dollar is comparable to, and in some cases greater than, other commuting options.

U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge 11/17/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 150 partner organizations are accelerating the development of the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations for more than 600,000 employees at more than 300 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

Progress Report: Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles - Version 2.0 11/3/2014 Reports

American National Standards Institute, Washington, DC

In January 2014, the American National Standards Institute Electric Vehicles Standards Panel (ANSI EVSP) resumed work to assess existing and needed standards and conformity assessment solutions to enable electric vehicles and charging infrastructure to be deployed throughout the United States. This report assesses progress to address the standardization gaps identified in the Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles - Version 2.0 (May 2013). It also includes updates on significant standardization activity related to the issues identified in the roadmap.

ADA Requirements for Workplace Charging Installation Workplace Charging Challenge 11/3/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination in public places against individuals with disabilities. As an employer installing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations, also known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), you need to follow special design guidelines to accommodate people with disabilities, as required by the ADA.

Workplace Charging Request for Proposal Guidance Workplace Charging Challenge 11/3/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

This Guidance provides a description of the types of requirements to be included in an employer's workplace charging request for proposal (RFP). This Guidance is not intended to be a sample or manual for acquiring electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), but rather to serve as a reference for an employer to consider when acquiring EVSE as part of a workplace charging program.

Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 11/3/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment 10/10/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime Smith,K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S. Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A. 9/12/2014 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations McLaren, J. 9/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Increasing demand for EV charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policymakers, utilities, and potential adopters. This paper introduces regulatory and policy options available to policymakers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging. Additionally, it summarizes considerations regarding EV charging during the day versus at night and benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies.

Alternative Fuel Vehicles & Fueling Infrastructure Deployment Barriers & the Potential Role or Private Sector Financial Solutions Dougherty, S.; Nigro, N. 5/14/2014 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia; National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, Virginia

This paper examines how private financing can address the barriers to demand facing electric, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their related fueling infrastructure. Starting with a review of the state of the market, it covers significant barriers to market demand and barriers for private investors and concludes with a review of innovative finance options used in other sectors that could be applied to the alternative fuel vehicle market.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

EPAct Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 3/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

Transitioning to Electric Drive Vehicles: Public Policy Implications of Uncertainty, Network Externalities,Tipping Points and Imperfect Markets Greene, D.L.; Park, S.; Liu, C. 1/17/2014 Reports

The Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

As a follow up to a 2013 report, Analyzing the Transition to Electric Drive in California, this report provides additional analyses regarding the transition to electric drive light-duty vehicles in California and other states that have adopted California's zero emission vehicle standards. In particular, this study estimates the effects of technological and market uncertainty as well as the timing and intensity of policies on electric vehicle development. The analyses in this report were carried out using the Light-duty Alternative Vehicles and Energy Transitions (LAVE-Trans) model.

A Guide to the Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities Community Electric Vehicle Readiness Projects Frades, M. 1/1/2014 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions

This report summarizes the activities, outputs, and lessons of a series of projects that are intended to advance the deployment of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) that was launched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2011.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

A Roadmap to Climate-Friendly Cars: 2013 Yawitz, D.; Kenward, A.; Larson, D. 9/1/2013 Reports

Climate Central, Princeton, New Jersey

An electric car is only as good for the climate as the electricity used to power it. And in states that rely heavily on fossil fuels like coal and natural gas for their electricity there are many conventional and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles that are better for the climate than all-electric cars today.</p><p>But that is just part of the story. Another critical factor is the carbon emissions generated when a car is manufactured. Emissions from producing the battery and other electrical components create a 10,000 to 40,000-pound carbon debt for electric cars that can only be overcome after tens, or even hundreds of thousands of miles of driving and recharging from clean energy sources.</p><p>This comprehensive state-by-state analysis of the climate impacts of the electric car, plug-in hybrid electrics, and high-mileage, gas-powered hybrid cars takes both of these factors into account - the source of energy used to power the car and carbon emissions from vehicle manufacturing.

Best Practices for Workplace Charging 9/1/2013 Reports

CALSTART, Pasadena, California

This document is a resource for employers and employees interested in launching a workplace charging program at their place of business.

Notes: This publication is copyrighted by Calstart and is accessed at on the Calstart publications page.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Light-Duty Vehicle and Fuel Pathways: A Synthesis of Recent Research Nigro, N.; Jiang, S. 7/19/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

Transitioning to a cleaner fleet of advanced vehicles powered by electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels or petroleum products can yield a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum consumption. A meaningful assessment of the comparative merits of these alternate fuel pathways requires a solid understanding of their technological potential to reduce emissions. Available studies evaluating full lifecycle emissions rely on various assumptions of that potential and yield a wide range of results. This brief summarizes and synthesizes the results of several recent studies and presents the full range of greenhouse gas emission estimates for each type of advanced vehicle and fuel. It also explains the reasons these estimates vary so widely and identifies opportunities for future analyses that use a consistent set of scenarios with transparent assumptions in order to compare the greenhouse gas impacts of fuel and vehicle pathways.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

EVSP Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles, Version 2.0 5/13/2013 Reports

American National Standards Institute, Washington, DC

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) convened the Electric Vehicles Standards Panel (ANSI EVSP or "the Panel") to assess the standards and conformance programs needed to facilitate the safe, mass deployment of EVs and charging infrastructure in the United States. The decision to form the Panel was made at a meeting of key stakeholders in March 2011 which ANSI convened in response to suggestions that the U.S. standardization community needed a more coordinated approach to keep pace with electric vehicle initiatives moving forward in other parts of the world. This effort draws upon participants from the automotive, utilities, and electrotechnical sectors as well as from standards developing organizations (SDOs or "developers") and government agencies.

Analyzing the Transition to Electric Drive in California Greene, D.L.; Park, S.; Liu, C. 4/23/2013 Reports

The Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy, Knoxville, Tennessee; The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

This report assesses the transition to electric drive vehicles under six alternative scenarios in California and other states that have adopted California's zero emission vehicle standards. Specifically, the report estimates the costs and benefits, barriers, and effects of public policies on the transition to electric drive light-duty vehicles. The analyses in this report were constructed using the Light-duty Alternative Vehicles and Energy Transitions (LAVE-Trans) model.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios. Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W. 4/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

U.S. DRIVE 2012 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 3/1/2013 Reports

U.S. DRIVE Partners

U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary government-industry partnership focused on precompetitive, advanced automotive and related infrastructure technology research and development (R&D). Partners are the United States Department of Energy (DOE); the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR)--a consortium composed of Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors; Tesla Motors, Inc.; five energy companies--BP America, Chevron Corporation, Phillips 66 Company, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two electric utilities--DTE Energy and Southern California Edison; and the Electric Power Research Institute.</p><p>By providing a framework for frequent and regular interaction among technical experts in common areas of expertise, the Partnership accelerates technical progress, helps to avoid duplication of efforts, ensures that publicly funded research delivers high-value results, and overcomes high-risk barriers to technology commercialization.</p><p>U.S. DRIVE partners selected the technical highlights contained in this document from hundreds of DOE-funded projects conducted by some of the nation's top scientists and engineers. Each one-page summary represents what DOE and automotive, energy, and utility industry partners collectively consider to be significant progress in the development of advanced automotive and infrastructure technologies.