Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
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Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

2017 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 8/11/2017 Reports

California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the State's decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 5/22/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

The Business Case for Fuel Cells: Delivering Sustainable Value Curtin, S.; Gangi, J. 4/25/2017 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Walshington, D.C.

The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016.

Model Year 2017: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 4/18/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Hydrogen Storage 3/7/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

This fact sheet, produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, describes hydrogen storage, including near-term hydrogen storage solutions and research needs and long-term research directions.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2016, 7th Edition Curtin, S.; Gangi, J. 11/30/2016 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, D.C.

This November 2016 report, the seventh in a series, provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, profiles of leading states, and a catalog of recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 11/22/2016 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G. 11/1/2016 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 6/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/3/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 1/7/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Model Year 2016: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/21/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

2014 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report Curtain, S.; Gangi, J. 10/8/2015 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, D.C.

This report describes data compiled in 2015 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2014 with some comparison to previous years.

American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Second Report Eudy, L.; Post, M. 9/14/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for all four buses through June 2015.

Motor Fuel Excise Taxes 9/1/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado

A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1 7/24/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fourth Report Eudy, L.; Post, M. 7/1/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA demonstration is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published three previous reports, in August 2011, July 2012, and May 2014, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering data from November 2013 through December 2014.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 2 1/21/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Alternative Transportation Refueling Infrastructure in the United States 2014: Status and Challenges Greene, D.L. 1/13/2015 Reports

University of Tennessee, Howard H. Baker JHr. Center for Public Policy, Knoxville, Tennessee

Lack of adequate refueling infrastructure is a major barrier to the success of alternative motor fuels. A transition from fossil petroleum to alternative, low-carbon transportation fuels appears to be necessary to mitigate the adverse impacts of global warming, strengthen energy security and meet air quality standards. Finding effective combinations of business models and public policies to accomplish a transition to alternative fuels poses a new and difficult challenge. Focusing on highway vehicles, this paper reviews the motivation for transition to alternative fuels, the current status of alternative fuel refueling infrastructure in the U.S., the costs of such infrastructure and business models and policies that have been proposed to achieve a successful transition. The goal of this paper is to serve as a basis for innovative thinking and discussion rather than as a comprehensive analysis of the issue. Infrastructure for producing and delivering fuels to refueling stations is equally important but is outside the scope of this paper.

Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 11/3/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

Model Year 2015: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/30/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles 9/9/2014 Reports

American Gas Association, Washington, DC; Toyota Motor Sales, Torrance, California; Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

On September 9, 2014, Sandia National Laboratories, American Gas Association, and Toyota, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies and Vehicle Technologies Offices, convened stakeholders across the hydrogen and natural gas communities to consider opportunities and challenges at the intersection of their development as alternative transportation fuels. Although natural gas and hydrogen have an obvious intersection - natural gas is the feedstock for 95% of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. - little attention has been given to how these fuels can evolve in the context of each other. This workshop explored infrastructure requirements, regional trends, and market opportunities at the intersection of hydrogen fuel cell and natural gas use for on road transportation. The goal of the workshop was to provide background and context for thinking through the dynamic evolution of these two transportation options in tandem, and to identify opportunities that can support the synergistic development of both fuels.

Fuel Cell Technology Office: Hydrogen Production 9/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cell Technologies Office, Washington, D.C.

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as "quick facts" about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report Eudy, L.; Post, M. 5/1/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners arecollaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

EPAct Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 3/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

FY 2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2/1/2014 Reports

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, , Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington D.C.

The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2013 Annual Progress Report discusses the potential benefits of advanced fuel and lubricant technologies including energy security, environmental sustainability and economic improvement.

Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

Alternative Fuel Vehicle & Fueling Infrastructure Deployment Barriers & the Potential Role of Private Sector Financial Solutions Dougherty, S.; Nigro, N. 12/31/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This paper examines how private financing can address the barriers to demand facing electric, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their related fueling infrastructure. Starting with a review of the state of the market, it covers significant barriers to market demand and barriers for private investors and concludes with a review of innovative finance options used in other sectors that could be applied to the alternative fuel vehicle market.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Model Year 2014: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 11/25/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Hydrogen Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations Carl Rivkin 10/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure projects.

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Light-Duty Vehicle and Fuel Pathways: A Synthesis of Recent Research Nigro, N.; Jiang, S. 7/19/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

Transitioning to a cleaner fleet of advanced vehicles powered by electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels or petroleum products can yield a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum consumption. A meaningful assessment of the comparative merits of these alternate fuel pathways requires a solid understanding of their technological potential to reduce emissions. Available studies evaluating full lifecycle emissions rely on various assumptions of that potential and yield a wide range of results. This brief summarizes and synthesizes the results of several recent studies and presents the full range of greenhouse gas emission estimates for each type of advanced vehicle and fuel. It also explains the reasons these estimates vary so widely and identifies opportunities for future analyses that use a consistent set of scenarios with transparent assumptions in order to compare the greenhouse gas impacts of fuel and vehicle pathways.

Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Greene, D.L.; Duleep , G. 7/1/2013 Reports

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; HD Systems, Washington, DC

Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 6/21/2013 Reports

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, , Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington D.C.

The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2012 Annual Progress Report discusses the potential benefits of advanced fuel and lubricant technologies including energy security, environmental sustainability and economic improvement.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

American Fuel Cell Bus Project: First Analysis Report Eudy, L.; Chandler, K. 6/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio

This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALSTART and SunLine Transit Agency developed a next-generation fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. The 40-foot ElDorado National transit bus features a BAE Systems series hybrid propulsion system powered by a Ballard Power Systems fuel cell and lithium iron phosphate batteries. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been tasked by FTA to evaluate the buses in service. This report documents the early development and implementation of the buses and summarizes the performance results through February 2013.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios. Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W. 4/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

U.S. DRIVE 2012 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 3/1/2013 Reports

U.S. DRIVE Partners

U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary government-industry partnership focused on precompetitive, advanced automotive and related infrastructure technology research and development (R&D). Partners are the United States Department of Energy (DOE); the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR)--a consortium composed of Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors; Tesla Motors, Inc.; five energy companies--BP America, Chevron Corporation, Phillips 66 Company, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two electric utilities--DTE Energy and Southern California Edison; and the Electric Power Research Institute.</p><p>By providing a framework for frequent and regular interaction among technical experts in common areas of expertise, the Partnership accelerates technical progress, helps to avoid duplication of efforts, ensures that publicly funded research delivers high-value results, and overcomes high-risk barriers to technology commercialization.</p><p>U.S. DRIVE partners selected the technical highlights contained in this document from hundreds of DOE-funded projects conducted by some of the nation's top scientists and engineers. Each one-page summary represents what DOE and automotive, energy, and utility industry partners collectively consider to be significant progress in the development of advanced automotive and infrastructure technologies.

Clean Cities 2013 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2013 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2013 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas.

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels 1/1/2013 Books & Chapters

Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs) operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns over petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. This report assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80% across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. It examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, effective, and sustained but adaptive policies such as research and development (R&D), subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers such as cost and consumer choice.

Notes: This book is available for purchase from The National Academies Press.

Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles, Preprint Melaina, M. Bremson, J., Solo, K 1/1/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of California Davis, Davis, California; Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado

The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

Notes: Presented at the 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference, Austin, Texas, November 4-7, 2012

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 10/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No. 2 9/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G. 7/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report Eudy, L.; Chandler, K. 7/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Batelle, Columbus, Ohio

This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partnersare collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory 3/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Life-Cycle Analysis of Shale Gas and Natural Gas Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. 12/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis Pathways with GREET Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Palou-Rivera, I.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.Q. 11/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel na

Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 8/1/2011 Reports

Batelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell electric buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District(SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 5/1/2011

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels?electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. </p><p>The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. </p><p>The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles 3/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Pew Center for Global Climate Change, Arlington, Virginia

The document includes quick facts about hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, descriptions of the parts of a fuel cell, hydrogen production pathways, emission reduction potential, cost, current development status, obstacles and policy options to promote fuel cell vehicles.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles 2/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles can play an important role in the portfolio of sustainable transportation fuel options, reduce dependence on imported oil and enable global economic leadership for America.

Hydrogen Safety, Codes, and Standards 2/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies are poised to play an integral role in our energy future. This publication covers hydrogen safety facts, research, and codes and standards to safely build, maintain, and operate hydrogen applications and fuel cell systems.

Identification and Review of State/Federal Legislative and Regulatory Changes Required for the Introduction of New Transportation Fuels 8/4/2010 Reports

Sierra Research Inc., Sacramento, California

Sierra Research has, at the request of the American Petroleum Institute, conducted an independent review of existing federal, state and other statutes, regulations, and requirements that must be changed and other significant implementation hurdles that must be overcome prior to the introduction of E15 and other new transportation fuels into commerce.

Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions 4/1/2010 Reports

U.S. Department of Transportation, Center for Climate Change and Envrionmental Forecasting, Washington, DC

This U.S. Department of Transportation report is submitted in response to the requirements of Section 1101(c) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. It is intended to help inform the debate on surface transportation reauthorization and climate change legislation.</p><p>The report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels and trends from the transportation sector and analyzes the full range of strategies available to reduce these emissions. These strategies include: introducing low-carbon fuels, increasing vehicle fuel economy, improving transportation system efficiency, and reducing carbon-intensive travel activity. While the report does not provide recommendations, it does analyze five categories of policy options for implementing the strategies: an economy-wide price signal, efficiency standards, market incentives, transportation planning and funding programs and research and development.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 13, No. 2 6/1/2009 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on San Antonio's Green Patrol to reduce idling at schools; Propane Road Shows in Virginia, Maryland, and South Carolina; Green Fleet Workshops in Lansing, Michigan; CabAire truck stop electrification project; Tucson's Sustainability and Energy Expo; Antelope Valley, California, green vehicle charity event; and University of Illinois-Chicago fleet experience story.

Advancing New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels 5/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Vehicle Technologies Program under the U.S. Department of Energy is actively developing and accelerating the deployment of clean and efficient vehicle technologies, as well as renewable fuels. The Vehicle Technologies program works with industry, universities, and state and local governments to strengthen the economy, create jobs, and reduce the U.S. demand for petroleum.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 13, No. 1 2/1/2009 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on Interstate 65, the nation's first biofuels corridor; Odyssey Day activities celebrated across the country; Melissa Howell named 2008 Clean Cities Coordinator of the Year; Meijer, Inc. fleet experience in reducing miles traveled and idling while increasing profitability; Central Texas CCC incentives for electric vehicles; and Texas CCC promotion of rebates for propane-powered mowers.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 4 10/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on 15th Anniversary of Clean Cities program; communications programs; first Clean Cities Coalitions in Atlanta, Denver, and Philadelphia; and alternative fuel transit buses.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 3 7/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on General Motors Rewards to Clean Cities Coalitions; Central Indiana CC Hosts Annual Legislative Breakfast; Northern Colorado CC Hosts Better Cars, Smarter Fleets Expo; Ann Arbor CC Receives CMAQ Grant for Infrastructure; and Specialty Solid Waste and Recycling Co. Serving Sunnyvale, Calif. with CNG Refuse Haulers.

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 7/1/2008 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report describes evaluation of operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) for three prototype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. This is the third evaluation report for this site, and it describes new results and experiences from September through December 2007. One of the major objectives of the program has been to provide educational opportunities for students, the general public in the San Francisco Bay Area, and other interested parties including federal and state government officials. AC Transit has been working with a team led by the Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California, Berkeley to develop a curriculum to educate high school students and their teachers about hydrogen technologies. The operation of the fuel cell buses in revenue service also provides an opportunity for the public to experience hydrogen fuel cell bus technology.</p><p>During the data collection period (Apr 2006-Dec 2007), AC Transit operated the fuel cell buses more than 62,000 miles with an overall fuel economy of 6.23 miles per kg, which equates to 7.04 miles per diesel equivalent gallon. For comparison, AC Transit's diesel buses had a fuel economy of 4.2 mpg during the same period.

SunLine Begins Extended Testing of Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus 6/1/2008 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

After 15 years of CNG-fueled transit buses, SunLine Transit Agency in Palm Springs, California, is seeking to expand its commitment to environmentally friendly alternative power systems by testing a prototype hybrid fuel cell bus.

SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 6/1/2008 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report describes evaluation of operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus; a prototype hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus; and five new compressed natural gas buses. This is the third evaluation report for SunLine Transit Agency in Thousand Palms, California. This report provides an update to the previous reports (Feb 2007 & Sep 2007) and includes results and experience through March 2008. During the data collection period (Jan 2006 - Mar 2008), SunLine operated the fuel cell bus nearly 51,000 miles in service with an overall fuel economy of 7.19 miles per kg. For comparison, SunLine's CNG buses have an average fuel economy of 3.02 miles per gasoline gallon equivalent. During the same timeframe, the HHICE bus accumulated more than 43,000 miles with an average fuel economy of 4.34 miles per kg.

Federal Tax Incentives Encourage Alternative Fuel Use 5/1/2008 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. government provides several tax incentives for purchasing alternative fuel, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles; installing alternative fueling infrastructure; and producing, selling, or using alternative fuels. The IRS has defined alternative fuels as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); liquefied hydrogen; liquid fuel derived from coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process; liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass including ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable diesel; and P-series fuels. Current federal tax incentives are outlined in this fact sheet.

Options for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles in Greensburg, Kansas Harrow, G. 5/1/2008 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

After a devastating tornado that destroyed the town of Greensburg, Kansas in May 2007, plans were developed to rebuild the town as a sustainable community. This report focuses on outlining key success factors of infrastructure, alternative vehicles, and alternative and renewable fuels as part of an integrated energy strategy.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 2 5/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on law to increase fuel economy to 35 mpg by 2020; Tucson CC Coalition helps Super Bowl go green; Utah school bus drivers pledge to reduce idling; DOE designates New Orleans Clean Cities Coalition; Vermont Clean Cities co-sponsors plug-in hybrid electric vehicle event; DOE offers $30 million in cost-share funding for improving PHEV performance; IRS.gov features list of heavy-duty vehicles eligible for tax credits; Alamo Clean Cities in San Antonio develops hybrid taxi replacement program; no AFV mandate for private and local fleets.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 1 1/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on tax incentive information available on the Clean Cities Web site; the importance of communication among Clean Cities Coalitions; Missouri's first permanent hydrogen fueling station in Rolla; school bus idle reduction in Vermont; Pennsylvania's new E85 corridor; updated UL bulletin on E85 fuel dispensing equipment; EPA's SmartWay Grow and Go program; B99 put to work in Portland, Oregon; EPAct requirements for Federal Fleet to use alternative fuel

California State Alternative Fuels Plan 10/1/2007 Reports

Transportation Committee, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California; California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

The California State Alternative Fuels Plan presents strategies and actions California must take to increase the use of alternative non-petroleum fuels in a manner that minimizes costs to the state and maximizes the economic benefits of in-state production. The plan assessed various alternative fuels and developed fuel portfolios to meet California's goals to reduce petroleum consumption, increase alternative fuels use, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase in-state production of biofuels, without causing a significant degradation of public health and environmental quality. The key circumstances and conditions necessary to achieve the plan outcomes are presented for each fuel based on plan assumptions and analysis. The plan describes a 2050 Vision that extends the plan outcomes beyond the milestone years of 2012, 2017, and 2022 and lays a foundation for building a multi-fuel transportation energy future for California.

Validation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and Infrastructure Technology 10/1/2007 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles could play a central role in future transportation system. They produce only electricity, heat, and water at point of use. They could also use predominantly domestic--potentially renewable--energy supplies instead of imported oil for transportation.</p><p>Through a 2003 competitive solicitation, DOE selected four automobile manufacturer/energy company teams to participate in the project--Chevron/Hyundai-Kia, DaimlerChrysler/BP, Ford/BP, and GM/Shell. DOE is cost-share fundung those teams to build small fleets of fuel-cell vehicles plus fueling stations to demonstrate their use in five regions of the United States.

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C. 9/1/2007 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C.

This report reviews past and present fuel cell bus technology development and implementation, specifically focusing on experiences and progress in the United States. Table 1 is an overview of many of the fuel cell transit bus development projects in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and elsewhere, from early development activities to current demonstration efforts focused on bringing the technology toward commercialization.

The U.S. DOE High Temperature Membrane Program Kopasz, J.; Garland, N.; Manheim, A. 9/1/2007 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Membranes used in current Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells require thermal and water management systems to control temperature and keep the membrane humidified. These components increase the weight and volume of the fuel cell system and add complexity. Estimates of the cost of the humidification systems for current membranes range from $5 to $8 per kW, while the thermal management system is estimated to cost $3 to $4 per kW. These costs must be reduced to meet the DOE transporation fuel cell system cost target of $30 per kW for the complete powertrain. </p><p>The cost and complexity of the thermal and water management systems could be minimized if the fuel cell operated at higher temperatures (up to 120 degrees C) and at lower relative humidity. Operation at 120 degrees C would also increase the tolerance of fuel cells to CO2, which would in turn reduce the cost of hydrogen from hydrocarbon sources because extraordinary steps would not be necessary to purify the hydrogen.

Lessons Learned from the Alternative Fuels Experience and How They Apply to the Development of a Hydrogen-Fueled Transportation System Melendez, M.; Theis, K.; Johnson, C. 8/1/2007 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a two-phased study of 1) the success/failure of alternative-fuel vehicle programs and corresponding legislative policies, and 2)how well alternative fuels and vehicles met customer requirements and achieved economic viability. This study was undertaken in order to assess the role of government policy and its stability as it affects industry and consumer behaviors; optimize strategies related to the introduction of hydrogen in the end-user sector; and avoid repeating mistakes of previous transportation technology introduction programs.

Learning Demonstration Interim Progress Report - Summer 2007 Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Thomas, H.; Welch, C.; Kurtz, J. 7/1/2007 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

This report discusses key results from DOE's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. The primary goal of this project is to validate vehicle and infrastructure systems using hydrogen as a transportation fuel for light-duty vehicles. The purpose is to validate the use of fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen refuelign infrastructure under real-world conditions using multiple sites, varying climates, and a variety of sources for hydrogen.

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Results Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 2/1/2007 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report includes preliminary evaluation results on three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, since March 2006 and 6 baseline diesel buses that are similar in design to the fuel cell business. This report describes the equipment used and provides early experience details, lessons learned, and early experience details.

Examining Hydrogen Transitions Plotkin, S. 2/1/2007 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This report describes the results of efforts to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light-duty vehicles.

SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 2/1/2007 Reports

Battelle Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This preliminary report covers NREL's evaluation of hydrogen and fuel cell buses in service at SunLine Transit Agency in Thousand Palms, California. The report includes 11 months of performance data on two hydrogen-fueled buses: one fuel cell bus and one hybrid hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine bus. The report also outlines the overall experience of the transit agency and its project partners in demonstrating these buses.

Performance of Automotive Fuel Cell Systems with Nanostructured Thin Film Catalysts Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Lasher, S.; Sinha, J.; Yang, Y.; Sriramulu, S. 1/1/2007 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; TIAX LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts; TIAX LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts; TIAX LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts; TIAX LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cost and durability are generally regarded as the major challenges to commercialization of fuel cells. Size, weight, and system complexity are also important barriers to adoption of fuel cells in light duty vehicles. In addition, thermal and water management for fuel cells are outstanding issues. Fuel cell operation at lower temperatures creates a small difference between the operating and ambient temperatures, necessitating large heat exchangers. Fuel and air feed streams need to be humidified for proper operation of fuel cells. In this paper, we evaluate the prospects of overcoming the barriers of cost, durability, weight, volume, thermal management, and water management by using nanostructured thin film catalysts (NTFCs) in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) In laboratory tests, the NSTF catalysts have shown significantly enhanced stability against surface area loss from Pt dissolution when compared to conventional Pt/C dispersed catalysts under both accelerated voltage cycling from 0.6 to 1.2 V and real-time start stop cycles. Also NSTF catalyst support-whiskers have shown total resistance to corrosion when held at potentials up to 1.5 V for 3 hours.

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 11/1/2006 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report provides evaluation results of prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. The report includes 17 months of performance data on three 40-ft. Gillig buses with a fuel cell system by Ballard Power Systems. The report also outlines the overall experience for the transit agency and its project partners in demonstrating these zero-emission buses. The analysis in this report reflects the prototype status of these vehicles. There is no intent to consider the implementation of these fuel cell buses as commercial (or full revenue transit service. The evaluation focuses on documenting progress and opportunities for improving the vehicles, infrastructure, and procedures.

Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Final Report Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A. 10/1/2006 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

In fiscal 2004 and 2005, the National Renewable Energy Lab developed a proposed minimal infrastructure to support nationwide deployment of hydrogen vehicles by offering infrastructure scenarios that facilitated interstate travel. The current (FY06) project aims to identify key metropolitan areas and regions on which to focus infrastruce efforts during the early hydrogen transition. The objectives of this analysis are to (1) quantify projected hydrogen vehicle demand across the U.S. and in targeted metropolitan areas; and, (2) quantify the projected hydrogen fuel demands corresponding with different levels of hydrogen vehicle demand to inform infrastructure analyses such as siting hydrogen fueling stations and selecting between centralized and distributed hydrogen production.

Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible Adams, R. 5/12/2006 Reports

Marathon Technical Services, Heidelberg, Ontario, Canada

The basic differences between the properties of gaseous and liquid fuels influence building design requirements for transit bus garages. Leaks, flammability range, and ignition temperatures must be considered when designing the structure, utilities, ventilation, and safety equipment.

AC Transit Demos Three Prototype Fuel Cell Buses 5/1/2006 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Alameda-Contra Costa (AC) Transit District is currently collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program on the evaluation of the three fuel cell buses. The hybrid system used is a series configuration, meaning the powerplant is not mechanically coupled to the drive axle.

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results Chandler, K.; Eudy, L. 3/1/2006 Reports

Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report provides preliminary results from an evaluation of prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report describes the equipment used (buses and infrastructure) and provides early experience details, lessons learned, and preliminary results from the operation of the buses and supporting hydrogen fuel station.

Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics Welch, Cory 2/1/2006 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Much attention has been given to the use of hydrogen as an alternative transportation fuel, but hydrogen was certainly not the first fuel considered as an alternative to gasoline for transportation applications. Options ranging from all-electric vehicles to those running on natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel have also received both industry and government attention. Unfortunately, previous government efforts to encourage widespread adoption of alternative fuel vehicles have been largely unsuccessful. The National Academy of Engineering suggested that 'DOE might have its greatest impact by leading the private economy toward transition strategies rather than to ultimate visions of an energy infrastructure markedly different from the one now in place.'</p><p>This report focuses on understanding how analytical system modeling coupled with actual data from previous alternative-fuel experiences could improve our understanding of the dynamic forces governing the transition to an alternative-fueled vehicle system.

Transitioning to a Hydrogen Future: Learning from the Alternative Fuels Experience Melendez, M. 2/1/2006 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

A wealth of practical knowledge concerning alternative fuel technologies, products, national policies, and market introduction exists within industry, regulated fleets, and voluntary programs. Issues relating to consumer choice, capital investment, business decision making, manufacturing, and infrastructure construction will need to be understood in the alternative fuels context if the hydrogen transition is to occur efficiently. The overall objective of this project is to assess relevant knowledge within the alternative fuels community and recommend transitional strategies and tactics that will further the hydrogen transition in the transportation sector and help avoid stranded assets in the alternative fuels industry.

Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A. 1/1/2006

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

The analysis done in fiscal year (FY) 2005 built upon the FY 2004 work described in the March 2005 report, Analysis of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Needed to Enable Commercial Introduction of Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicles1. The FY 2005 project: Identified existing hydrogen production facilities and alternative fuel stations; Identified highway traffic volumes throughout the U.S. interstate system; Selected specific north/south and east/west routes as a focus for the project; Incorporated existing hydrogen production facilities, hydrogen and natural gas fueling stations, railroads, traffic volume, and county population data; Placed stations on the U.S. interstate network according to population density and station distances; and identified a significant potential to co-locate refueling with federal government partners. In FY 2005, analysis focused on using the basic refueling station network proposed in FY 2004 to evaluate various scenarios for transition. These strategies and analyses are described in this report.

Steam Reforming of Ethanol at Elevated Pressures for Distributed Hydrogen Production Lee, S.; Papadias, D.; Ahluwalia, R.; Ahmed, S. 1/1/2006 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Ethanol is an attractive renewable fuel because, as a liquid fuel, it has a high energy density, it is easy to transport, and it is environmentally more benign than petroleum-derived fuels. The hydrogen produced by reforming needs to be purified and compressed to the appropriate storage and dispensing pressures. Compressing hydrogen is energy intensive and can consume a significant fraction of the fuel's heating value. A promising option for producing hydrogen from ethanol is by conducting the ethanol steam reforming reaction at an elevated pressure, since injecting liquid feeds (ethanol and water) into a pressurized reactor requires very little energy.

Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S. 11/1/2005 Reports

SunLine Services Group, Thousand Palms, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Hydrogen Components Inc., Littleton, Colorado; Westport Innovations Inc. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

One approach being put forth for the advancement of hydrogen fueled vehicles is to blend hydrogen with compressed natural gas (H/CNG) for use in state-of-the-art internal combustion engine vehicles. Current natural gas engines and vehicles can be modified to operate on H/CNG with available technology. This report reviews a small-scale study of this concept. The project demonstrated that with minor engine and vehicle modifications, the 20/80 hydrogen/CNG blend can be used in revenue service fleets with similar operational performance as CNG. However, additional optimization of the H/CNG engine calibration is necessary to attain equivalent fuel economy, or alternatively increased fuel economy at equivalent NOx emissions.

VTA, SamTrans Look into Future with Bus Demo 9/1/2005 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides information about the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) Zero-Emission Bus Program. VTA is currently collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program to evaluate the performance of three fuel cell transit buses developed by Ballard Power Systems and Gillig Corporation.