Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 49 publications
Title Author Date Category
Work Truck Idling Reduction 3/9/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

Gas-Saving Tips 2/28/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

This fact sheet for consumers describes a few simple tips to help obtain the best possible fuel economy from vehicles and to reduce fuel costs.

National Idling Reduction Network News 1/16/2017 Newsletters

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This monthly web publication covers news and developments in the heavy-duty truck idling reduction industry. The link takes you to the current newsletter and has a link to archived issues.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G. 11/1/2016 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies Gaines, L.; Weikersheimer, P. 9/1/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This report considers the costs and return on investment for idling reduction equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space equipment owners.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 1/7/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Case Study - Idle Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles 1/1/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise. It highlights nine fleets from very different types of organizations that implemented a range of IRT solutions. The interviewed fleets included typical town/county police, fire, and ambulance fleets. Some unique Federal government fleets (fire and border patrol) were also included. This case study was sponsored by the Clean Cities program and developed by Argonne National Laboratory and Energetics Incorporated. The fleets discussed in this case study provided critical assistance with information collection by providing access to staff to discuss their approach, experiences, and other relevant information regarding their IRT selection and use.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits 8/12/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1 7/24/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Idling Reduction for Emergency and Other Service Vehicles 5/7/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This is a fact sheet about reducing idling for emergency and service vehicles. Emergency vehicles, such as police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks, along with other service vehicles such as armored cars, are often exempt from laws that limit engine idling. However, these vehicles can save fuel and reduce emissions with technologies that allow them to perform vital services without idling.

Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles 5/7/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components Windover, P.R.; Owens, R.J.; Levinson, T.M.; Laughlin, M.D. 4/28/2015 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 2 1/21/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

National Clean Fleets Partnership 9/16/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

ORNL Operations Best Practices Guide: Idle Reduction Curran, S., Settles, K; Keel-Blackmon, K. 3/15/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition, Knoxville, Tennessee

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sustainable Campus Initiative, working with the local DOE Clean Cities program, has created an idle reduction guide that explains the benefits of reducing idling. Included in the guide is a collection of vehicle manufacturer recommendations that will help improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce tailpipe emissions.

Which is Greener: Idle, or Stop and Restart? Comparing Fuel Use and Emissions for Short Passenger-Car Stops Gaines, L., Rask, E., Keller, G. 2/11/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The argument against parking and going into a business, rather than using a drive-through window, has been that the emissions and fuel use associated with restarting your car are greater than those incurred by idling for that time. Argonne National Laboratory undertook a series of measurements to determine whether this was true, by comparing actual idling fuel use and emissions with those for restarting. This work seeks to answer the question: Considering both fuel use and emissions, how long can you idle in a queue before impacts from idling are greater than they are for restarting? Fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions are always greater for idling over 10 seconds; the crossover times are found to vary by pollutant.

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 10/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No. 2 9/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report. Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P. 8/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

What is FuelEconomy.gov? 7/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

FuelEconomy.gov is an Internet resource that helps consumers make informed fuel economy choices when purchasing a vehicle and achieve the best fuel economy possible from the cars they own.</p><p>FuelEconomy.gov is maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy with data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The site helps fulfill DOE and EPA's responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate miles per gallon (MPG) information to consumers.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No.1 5/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-iannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; and Sparks, W. 4/16/2012 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Golden, Colorado

Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: 1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, 2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and 3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

Notes: Posted with permission. Presented at the 2012 SAE World Congress and Exhibition, April 24-26, 2012, Detroit, Michigan.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 15, No. 2 10/1/2011 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now features news and articles about Clean Cities coalition activities in promoting the reduction in the use of petroleum transportation fuel. The October 2011 issue features stories about idle reduction equipment benefits, coordinator profiles, the 2011 Clean Cities Stakeholder Summit and other coalition news.

Idling: Cruising the Fuel Inefficiency Expressway Gaines, L.; Levinson, T. 6/1/2011 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The impacts of idling are substantial, with as much as 2 billion gallons of fuel burned unnecessarily each year in the United States at a cost of over $4 billion. The extra hours of engine operation also cost the owners money for more frequent maintenance and overhauls. In addition, idling vehicles emit particulates (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). These emissions, along with noise from idling vehicles, have led to many local and state restrictions on idling.</p><p> This study presents the first comparison of IR technologies with each other and with idling on the basis of both costs and full fuel?]cycle emissions, for different locations, fuel prices, and idling patterns. The preferences described are for the technologies that reduce total emissions the most and cost truck owners the least. We also discuss how regulatory issues and legislation affect IR, what financial incentives help to promote IR, and how outreach and education approaches can be adopted to reduce the need to idle. Finally, we offer a prediction of how future research and development (R&D), regulations, and citizens can help to improve fuel economy and clean the air. This report focuses on heavy-duty vehicles.

To Idle or Not to Idle: That is the Question 11/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Should I idle my car to warm it up before I drive? Should I shut the engine off while waiting to pick up a passenger or for a train to go by? Is it better to pick up food at a drive-through or to park and go into the restaurant? These are common questions that people ask when they want to know more about how to drive "green." There are conflicting answers in the literature, which has led to confusion. This poster presents the results of measurements performed on both diesel and gasoline passenger vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory. The answers are found to depend on vehicle type, ambient temperature, time, local laws, and what criteria are used to define "green."

Compendium of Idling Regulations 9/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

American Transportation Research Institute, Arlington, Virginia

The American Transportation Research Institute has issued a list of idling regulations, current as of January 2009, passed by several cities, counties, and states. Included are Maricopa County, Arizona; California; Placer County, California; City of Sacramento, California; City of Aspen and City and County of Denver, Colorado; Connecticut; Delaware; District of Columbia; City of Atlanta, Georgia; Hawaii; several cities and counties in Illinois; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; Minneapolis, Owatonna, and St. Cloud, Minnesota; City and County of St. Louis, Missouri; Nevada; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New York State; New York City; New Rochelle, New York; Rockland County, New York; Philadelphia and Alleghany County, Pennsylvania; Rhode Island; South Carolina; several cities and counties in Texas; Utah; and Virginia.

An Action Plan for Cars: The Policies Needed to Reduce U.S. Petroleum Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Heywood, J.; Baptista, P.; Berry, I.; Bhatt, K.; Cheah, L.; De Sisternes, F.; Karplus, V.; Keith, D.; Khusid, M.; MacKenzie, D.; McAulay, J. 12/1/2009 Reports

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts

Reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from cars and light?]duty trucks in the United States over the next several decades requires that we implement a clear and coordinated set of policies now. This report describes a portfolio of policies which, in the view of the authors, is needed to put personal vehicle transportation on the road to sustainability in the longer term. To incentivize adoption of more fuel efficient vehicles, we propose coupling existing near?]term fuel economy standards with a feebate incentive program and gradual increases in fuel taxes. We further propose driver education initiatives that would give vehicle owners information on how to maximize fuel savings in their purchase and driving decisions. Finally, we underscore the need for a long?]term strategy for fuels that evaluates fuels?]related programs based on their contribution to reducing life?]cycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Together, these policies offer a robust plan of action that will focus and streamline current efforts to achieve these two important national goals. Perhaps most importantly, this plan lays a much?]needed foundation for a comprehensive, adaptable long?]term policy effort. A more detailed summary of the recommended set of policy measures can be found in Section 2.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 13, No. 2 6/1/2009 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on San Antonio's Green Patrol to reduce idling at schools; Propane Road Shows in Virginia, Maryland, and South Carolina; Green Fleet Workshops in Lansing, Michigan; CabAire truck stop electrification project; Tucson's Sustainability and Energy Expo; Antelope Valley, California, green vehicle charity event; and University of Illinois-Chicago fleet experience story.

Compendium of Regulatory Language of U.S. Idle Ordinances and Laws 2/1/2009 Reports

Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Beginning with EPA's model state idling law, this document presents the regulatory language for all known city, county, multi-jurisdictional, and statewide idle laws across the United States. The regulatory language presented represents idle laws as incorporated by the controlling authorityat the time of collation. These laws vary in their prescribed maximum idle times, number and type of exceptions, and geographic scope. They are presented so that an interested party can use these laws to help guide creation of idle laws that suit their area. Pdf includes an interactive contents page to direct reader to state and city.

School Bus Idling Reduction: Project Report and Implementation Guide for Oklahoma School Districts 1/1/2009 Reports

School bus idling wastes fuel and financial resources while producing exhaust emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment. Beginning in late 2006, the Association of Central Oklahoma Governments, Choctaw-Nicoma Park Public Schools, and the Oklahomas Department of Environmental Quality undertook a two-year project to determine the extend of fuel and emissions savings that Oklahoma school district might expect by instituting a maximum five-minute school bus idling policy. This report offers the study's findings to public school districts in Oklahoma and elsewhere. Results indicate that for every five minutes of daily idling time reduced over the course of a school year, 7.5 gallons of fuel per bus can be saved for a collective savings of more than 58,000 gallons of diesel fuel saved annually.

Energy Use and Emissions Comparison of Idling Reduction Options for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks 11/15/2008 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL

Pollution and energy analyses of different idling reduction (IR) technologies have been limited to localized vehicle emissions and neglected upstream energy use and regional emissions. In light of increasing regulation and government incentives for IR, we analyzed the full-fuel-cycle effects of contemporary approaches. Our analysis incorporates direct impacts at the truck and upstream energy use and emissions estimates from the GREET model with published climate and vehicle operation data. We compared emissions, energy use, and proximity to urban populations for nine alternatives, including idling, electrified parking spaces, auxiliary power units, and several combinations of these.

Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool 11/1/2008

The Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool helps fleets, consumers, and business owners create a strategy to reudce conventional fuel use in fleet and personal vehicles. This interactive tool allows users to evaluate and calculate petroleum reductions by choosing one or a combination of methods.

How Much Could You Save by Idling Less? 9/11/2006 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Enter information on this worksheet to calculate costs available by avoidable idling and idle reduction.

Estimation of Fuel Use by Idling Commercial Trucks Gaines, L.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J. 1/22/2006 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Extended idling by commercial trucks represents a significant use of our petroleum resources, and much of this oil use could be avoided by installing idle-reduction technologies, by adopting vehicle scheduling policies, or simply by turning the trucks off. Until now, attention has been focused on overnight idling by tractor-trailers with sleepers, which represent a very visible andobvious target for conservation and emission-reduction efforts. However, commercial trucks of all sizes idle for extended periods (0.5 hour or more) during their workdays, for a variety of reasons, such as while drivers wait to pick up or drop off a load or as a means of providing a warm haven for workers fixing utilities or roads in inclement weather. The quantity of petroleumused by such trucks may be far greater than that used by sleepers idling overnight. Although the length of time these vehicles idle is considerably shorter than the 6?10 hours that sleepers idle, the sheer number of vehicles more than makes up for it.</p><p>The sum of overnight and workday idling of trucks may consume well over 2 billion gallons of oil (mostly diesel) annually in the United States. To develop an accurate estimate of idling fuel use, data on vehicles and fleets in many industries would have to be collected. Cost-effective technologies exist for reducing overnight idling, but the fewer hours trucks idle per day while working will be somewhat of a barrier to their use in non-sleepers, because the payback period will be longer than the two years that the trucking industry requires.

The Harmful Effects of Vehicle Exhaust: A Case for Policy Change Wargo, J.; Wargo, L.; Alderman, N; Brown, D. R. 1/1/2006 Reports

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; none; Environment and Human Health, Inc., North Haven, Connecticut

Most people assume that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is sufficiently protecting air quality by setting limits for chemicals released from vehicles, requiring newer engines to be less polluting, and restricting levels normally found in outdoor air. While the government monitors pollutants at fixed stations, these measurements bear little resemblance to the pollutiuon you and your family experience while moving through daily life. This report examines a variety of harmful effects from air pollution, including that caused by vehicle exhaust. The report focuses on Connecticut.

Reducing School Bus Idling: The Key to a Healthier Ride 8/1/2004 Presentations

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Clean School Bus USA. Washington, D.C.

A five-minute training video designed to educate school bus drivers, fleet operators, and school officials about the benefits of reduced idling in school bus operations. It features practical tips for school districts and drivers, plus health information about diesel exhaust.

Notes: Copies of this document can be ordered in VHS or CD (Windows Media Player) format, free-of-charge, from the U.S. EPA Clean School Bus USA page.

Turn Idle Time into Cash - A How-to Handbook on Trading Engine Idle Time for Profit 9/16/2003 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Fleet Owner. Magazine, Overland Park, Kansas

Special industry report from Fleet Owner. Magazine focuses on cost savings and benefits associated with heavy-duty truck idle reduction technology.

Notes: This Special report is adapted and reprinted with permission from the September 2003 issue of Fleet Owner.

Study of Exhaust Emissions from Idling Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks and Commercially Available Idle-Reducing Devices Lim, H. 10/1/2002 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Heavy duty diesel truck idling contributes significantly to energy consumption in the United States. The EPA initiated a study to quantify long duration idling emissions and fuel consumption rates over a two year period. It performed 42 tests on nine class-8 trucks (model years ranging from 1980s to 2001). Two of those trucks were equipped with 11 hp diesel auxiliary power units (APUs), and one was equipped with a diesel direct fired heater (DFH). The APU powers electrical accessories, heating, and air conditioning, whereas the DFH heats the cab in lieu of truck idling. Results indicate that use of an APU can reduce idling fuel consumption by 50 to 80% and reduce NOx by 89 to 94%. The use of a DFH can reduce fuel consumption by 94 to 96% and reduce NOx by 99%.