Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 66 publications
Title Author Date Category
Effect of Ethanol Fuel Additive on Diesel Emissions Cole,R.L.; Poola,R.B.; Sekar,R.; Schaus,J.E.; McPartlin, P. 8/1/2000 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; AutoResearch Laboratories, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.

<p>Engine-out emissions from a Volkswagen model TDI engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 15% ethanol. The test matrix covered five speeds from 1,320 to 3,000 rpm, five torques from 15 Nm to maximum plus the 900-rpm idle condition, and most of the points in the FTP-75 and US-06 vehicle tests. Emissions of particulate matter(PM), nitrogen oxides (NO<sub>x</sub>), unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at each point, as were fuel consumption, exhaust oxygen, and carbon dioxide output.</p><p>PM emissions were reduced up to 75% when ethanol-diesel blends were used instead of neat diesel fuel. Significant reductions in PM emissions occurred over one-half to two-thirds of the test matrix. NO<sub>x</sub> emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Although the regions of reduced NO<sub>x</sub> emissions were much smaller than the regions of reduced PM emissions, there was considerable overlap between the two regions where PM emissions were reduced by up to 75% and NO<sub>x</sub> emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Such simultaneous reduction of both PM and NO<sub>x</sub> emissions would be difficult to achieve by any other means. </p><p>HC and CO emissions were also reduced in the regions of reduced PM and NO<sub>x</sub> emissions that overlapped. Because the ethanol-diesel blends contain less energy on both a per-unit-mass basis and a per-unit-volume basis, there was a reduction in maximum torque of up to 10% and an increase in brake-specific fuel consumption of up to 7% when these blends were used.</p>

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008 Bergeron, P.; Johnson, C. 9/1/2009 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Approximately 412 million gallons of gasoline were displaced through the Clean Cities efforts in 2008?14% more than in 2007. This displacement represents the combined results of the activities reported by coalitions (as analyzed by NREL) and the impacts of the Fuel Economy Guide and related activities (as estimated by ORNL). Three major changes were made to the Clean Cities survey this year: E10 is no longer counted toward petroleum displacement goals, coordinators no longer relied on a default assumption for the percent of time flex-fueled vehicles used alternative fuel, and B20 was moved from the AFV to the blends category. The first of these changes substantially reduced the reported petroleum displacement by blends from what they otherwise would have been in 2008. AFVs still accounted for the largest share (48%) of the total 412-million-gallon displacement. Fuel economy impacts (combined impacts of coalition and ORNL activity) were responsible for displacing 129 million gallons. The use of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) as fuels for AFVs and in low-level biodiesel blends displaced 100 million gallons, or 24% of the total, and idle reduction and HEV technologies combined to displace 20 million gallons. 2008 was the first year that greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions were estimated for Clean Cities activities. The program kept a total of 2.7 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) from being emitted to the atmosphere?the equivalent of removing over 507,000 passenger cars from U.S. roads.

Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Final Report Lascurain, M.B., Franzese, O., Capps, G., Siekmann, A., Thomas, N., LaClair, T., Barker, A., Knee, H. 11/1/2012 Reports

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. </p><p>This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE's vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks' drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for the collection of one year of operational data. The Part-2 FOT involved the towing and recovery and utility vocations for a second year of data collection.

Clean Cities News, Volume 8, Number 1 3/1/2004 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This premier issue of Clean Cities News, published by the Clean Cities Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), features a lead article explaining the newly expanded Clean Cities Program. The article highlights the addition of fuel blends, hybrid vehicles, fuel economy, and idle reduction to the Clean Cities portfolio built on alternative fuels. In addition, we offer success stories about a Cleveland, Ohio-based order of nuns who drive CNG Hondas; a new propane pumping station in Bakersfield, California; the nation's first biodiesel blending facility in Indiana; and Mammoth Cave National Park's commitment to using E85, propane, and biodiesel in its support and transit vehicles. We also include a story on the U.S. Marine Corps winning of a Federal Energy and Water Management Award for 2003; a coordinator profile on Rick Ruvolo; industry news on E85 from General Motors; and the release of a toolkit aimed at opening the short-haul trucking market to alternative fuels.

Clean Cities News, Volume 8, Number 3 9/1/2004 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities News, volume 8, number 3, published by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative, opens with a feature on the recently awarded State Energy Program Special Projects grants66 grants worth $5.4 million were awarded to Clean Cities projects. Also included in this edition are success stories about NGV use in driver education courses, a New Hampshire public works department that runs on biodiesel, propane school buses in Portland, and the Clean Vehicle Loaner program in Texas. A technical assistance feature on airport AFV use; EPAct, Clean Cities, and industry news; and listings of upcoming events and resources round out this issue.

Clean Cities News, Volume 8, Number 2 4/1/2004 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This special edition of Clean Cities News, published the Clean Cities Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, focuses on the program's newly expanded portfolio. While alternative fuels and vehicles continue to be the cornerstone of the program, we've added fuel blends, hybrids, fuel economy, and idle reduction to our list of strategies designed to displace significant amounts of petroleum. Read on for an early look at the expanded program as described in the new Clean Cities Roadmap.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 11, No. 3 6/1/2007 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on Clean Cities 2006 Petroleum Displacement up 50% from 2005; biodiesel production could help preserve Virginia wetlands; 100 attend Tri-Coalition Idle Reduction Conference; Tucson receives EPA award; General Motors rewards 52 Clean Cities Coalitions; business case helps station owners evaluate E85 profitability potential; Roush takes orders for Liquid Propane Ford F-150; Garbage fumes fuel LNG transit buses; Federal Fleets face new Executive Order, EPAct requirements; Sweden's BEST program ramps up ethanol use

Clean Cities Now Vol. 10, No. 1 2/1/2006 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This issue of CCN features stories about Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology, Idle Reduction for Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Propane Education and Research Council and Clean Cities grant awardees, use of E85 and flexible fuel vehicles, State Fleet Regulations support alternative fuel use

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2007 Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P. 9/1/2008 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2007, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006 Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V. 7/1/2007 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coordinators submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions as well as data about sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities. NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline reduction impacts.</p><p>Survey results indicate that about 375 million gallons of gasoline were displaced through Clean Citiew efforts in 2006, 50 percent more than in 2005. Alternative fuel vehicles accounted for 71 percent of the reduction. Biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) used in AFVs displaced 128 million gallons, 34 percent of the total 375 million.

Options for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles in Greensburg, Kansas Harrow, G. 5/1/2008 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

After a devastating tornado that destroyed the town of Greensburg, Kansas in May 2007, plans were developed to rebuild the town as a sustainable community. This report focuses on outlining key success factors of infrastructure, alternative vehicles, and alternative and renewable fuels as part of an integrated energy strategy.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 2 5/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on law to increase fuel economy to 35 mpg by 2020; Tucson CC Coalition helps Super Bowl go green; Utah school bus drivers pledge to reduce idling; DOE designates New Orleans Clean Cities Coalition; Vermont Clean Cities co-sponsors plug-in hybrid electric vehicle event; DOE offers $30 million in cost-share funding for improving PHEV performance; IRS.gov features list of heavy-duty vehicles eligible for tax credits; Alamo Clean Cities in San Antonio develops hybrid taxi replacement program; no AFV mandate for private and local fleets.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No. 2 9/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 15, No. 2 10/1/2011 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now features news and articles about Clean Cities coalition activities in promoting the reduction in the use of petroleum transportation fuel. The October 2011 issue features stories about idle reduction equipment benefits, coordinator profiles, the 2011 Clean Cities Stakeholder Summit and other coalition news.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 13, No. 2 6/1/2009 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on San Antonio's Green Patrol to reduce idling at schools; Propane Road Shows in Virginia, Maryland, and South Carolina; Green Fleet Workshops in Lansing, Michigan; CabAire truck stop electrification project; Tucson's Sustainability and Energy Expo; Antelope Valley, California, green vehicle charity event; and University of Illinois-Chicago fleet experience story.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 12, No. 1 1/1/2008 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on tax incentive information available on the Clean Cities Web site; the importance of communication among Clean Cities Coalitions; Missouri's first permanent hydrogen fueling station in Rolla; school bus idle reduction in Vermont; Pennsylvania's new E85 corridor; updated UL bulletin on E85 fuel dispensing equipment; EPA's SmartWay Grow and Go program; B99 put to work in Portland, Oregon; EPAct requirements for Federal Fleet to use alternative fuel

An Action Plan for Cars: The Policies Needed to Reduce U.S. Petroleum Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Heywood, J.; Baptista, P.; Berry, I.; Bhatt, K.; Cheah, L.; De Sisternes, F.; Karplus, V.; Keith, D.; Khusid, M.; MacKenzie, D.; McAulay, J. 12/1/2009 Reports

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts

Reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from cars and light?]duty trucks in the United States over the next several decades requires that we implement a clear and coordinated set of policies now. This report describes a portfolio of policies which, in the view of the authors, is needed to put personal vehicle transportation on the road to sustainability in the longer term. To incentivize adoption of more fuel efficient vehicles, we propose coupling existing near?]term fuel economy standards with a feebate incentive program and gradual increases in fuel taxes. We further propose driver education initiatives that would give vehicle owners information on how to maximize fuel savings in their purchase and driving decisions. Finally, we underscore the need for a long?]term strategy for fuels that evaluates fuels?]related programs based on their contribution to reducing life?]cycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Together, these policies offer a robust plan of action that will focus and streamline current efforts to achieve these two important national goals. Perhaps most importantly, this plan lays a much?]needed foundation for a comprehensive, adaptable long?]term policy effort. A more detailed summary of the recommended set of policy measures can be found in Section 2.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No.1 5/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-iannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report. Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P. 8/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 2 1/21/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised) Johnson, C. 8/10/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven. NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 10/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1 7/24/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

The Harmful Effects of Vehicle Exhaust: A Case for Policy Change Wargo, J.; Wargo, L.; Alderman, N; Brown, D. R. 1/1/2006 Reports

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; none; Environment and Human Health, Inc., North Haven, Connecticut

Most people assume that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is sufficiently protecting air quality by setting limits for chemicals released from vehicles, requiring newer engines to be less polluting, and restricting levels normally found in outdoor air. While the government monitors pollutants at fixed stations, these measurements bear little resemblance to the pollutiuon you and your family experience while moving through daily life. This report examines a variety of harmful effects from air pollution, including that caused by vehicle exhaust. The report focuses on Connecticut.

What is FuelEconomy.gov? 7/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

FuelEconomy.gov is an Internet resource that helps consumers make informed fuel economy choices when purchasing a vehicle and achieve the best fuel economy possible from the cars they own.</p><p>FuelEconomy.gov is maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy with data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The site helps fulfill DOE and EPA's responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate miles per gallon (MPG) information to consumers.

Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 1/7/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Fighting Oil Addiction: Ranking States' Gasoline Price Vulnerability and Solutions For Change Grossman, D.; Lovaas, D. 11/1/2012 Reports

David Gardiner & Associates, LLC, Arlington, Virginia; Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, New York

This is the sixth edition of this report, updating the 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 research by David Gardiner & Associates (DGA) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) identifying the states whose citizens feel the greatest economic pain from gasoline prices--and the states that are doing the most to break their addiction to oil.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Natural Resources Defense Council's website.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G. 11/1/2016 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; and Sparks, W. 4/16/2012 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Golden, Colorado

Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: 1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, 2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and 3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

Notes: Posted with permission. Presented at the 2012 SAE World Congress and Exhibition, April 24-26, 2012, Detroit, Michigan.

National Clean Fleets Partnership 9/16/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components Windover, P.R.; Owens, R.J.; Levinson, T.M.; Laughlin, M.D. 4/28/2015 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

Gas-Saving Tips 2/28/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

This fact sheet for consumers describes a few simple tips to help obtain the best possible fuel economy from vehicles and to reduce fuel costs.

Reducing School Bus Idling: The Key to a Healthier Ride 8/1/2004 Presentations

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Clean School Bus USA. Washington, D.C.

A five-minute training video designed to educate school bus drivers, fleet operators, and school officials about the benefits of reduced idling in school bus operations. It features practical tips for school districts and drivers, plus health information about diesel exhaust.

Notes: Copies of this document can be ordered in VHS or CD (Windows Media Player) format, free-of-charge, from the U.S. EPA Clean School Bus USA page.

Study of Exhaust Emissions from Idling Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks and Commercially Available Idle-Reducing Devices Lim, H. 10/1/2002 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Heavy duty diesel truck idling contributes significantly to energy consumption in the United States. The EPA initiated a study to quantify long duration idling emissions and fuel consumption rates over a two year period. It performed 42 tests on nine class-8 trucks (model years ranging from 1980s to 2001). Two of those trucks were equipped with 11 hp diesel auxiliary power units (APUs), and one was equipped with a diesel direct fired heater (DFH). The APU powers electrical accessories, heating, and air conditioning, whereas the DFH heats the cab in lieu of truck idling. Results indicate that use of an APU can reduce idling fuel consumption by 50 to 80% and reduce NOx by 89 to 94%. The use of a DFH can reduce fuel consumption by 94 to 96% and reduce NOx by 99%.

Estimation of Fuel Use by Idling Commercial Trucks Gaines, L.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J. 1/22/2006 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Extended idling by commercial trucks represents a significant use of our petroleum resources, and much of this oil use could be avoided by installing idle-reduction technologies, by adopting vehicle scheduling policies, or simply by turning the trucks off. Until now, attention has been focused on overnight idling by tractor-trailers with sleepers, which represent a very visible andobvious target for conservation and emission-reduction efforts. However, commercial trucks of all sizes idle for extended periods (0.5 hour or more) during their workdays, for a variety of reasons, such as while drivers wait to pick up or drop off a load or as a means of providing a warm haven for workers fixing utilities or roads in inclement weather. The quantity of petroleumused by such trucks may be far greater than that used by sleepers idling overnight. Although the length of time these vehicles idle is considerably shorter than the 6?10 hours that sleepers idle, the sheer number of vehicles more than makes up for it.</p><p>The sum of overnight and workday idling of trucks may consume well over 2 billion gallons of oil (mostly diesel) annually in the United States. To develop an accurate estimate of idling fuel use, data on vehicles and fleets in many industries would have to be collected. Cost-effective technologies exist for reducing overnight idling, but the fewer hours trucks idle per day while working will be somewhat of a barrier to their use in non-sleepers, because the payback period will be longer than the two years that the trucking industry requires.

How Much Could You Save by Idling Less? 9/11/2006 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Enter information on this worksheet to calculate costs available by avoidable idling and idle reduction.

Compendium of Regulatory Language of U.S. Idle Ordinances and Laws 2/1/2009 Reports

Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Beginning with EPA's model state idling law, this document presents the regulatory language for all known city, county, multi-jurisdictional, and statewide idle laws across the United States. The regulatory language presented represents idle laws as incorporated by the controlling authorityat the time of collation. These laws vary in their prescribed maximum idle times, number and type of exceptions, and geographic scope. They are presented so that an interested party can use these laws to help guide creation of idle laws that suit their area. Pdf includes an interactive contents page to direct reader to state and city.

Which is Greener: Idle, or Stop and Restart? Comparing Fuel Use and Emissions for Short Passenger-Car Stops Gaines, L., Rask, E., Keller, G. 2/11/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The argument against parking and going into a business, rather than using a drive-through window, has been that the emissions and fuel use associated with restarting your car are greater than those incurred by idling for that time. Argonne National Laboratory undertook a series of measurements to determine whether this was true, by comparing actual idling fuel use and emissions with those for restarting. This work seeks to answer the question: Considering both fuel use and emissions, how long can you idle in a queue before impacts from idling are greater than they are for restarting? Fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions are always greater for idling over 10 seconds; the crossover times are found to vary by pollutant.

Energy Use and Emissions Comparison of Idling Reduction Options for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks 11/15/2008 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL

Pollution and energy analyses of different idling reduction (IR) technologies have been limited to localized vehicle emissions and neglected upstream energy use and regional emissions. In light of increasing regulation and government incentives for IR, we analyzed the full-fuel-cycle effects of contemporary approaches. Our analysis incorporates direct impacts at the truck and upstream energy use and emissions estimates from the GREET model with published climate and vehicle operation data. We compared emissions, energy use, and proximity to urban populations for nine alternatives, including idling, electrified parking spaces, auxiliary power units, and several combinations of these.

School Bus Idling Reduction: Project Report and Implementation Guide for Oklahoma School Districts 1/1/2009 Reports

School bus idling wastes fuel and financial resources while producing exhaust emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment. Beginning in late 2006, the Association of Central Oklahoma Governments, Choctaw-Nicoma Park Public Schools, and the Oklahomas Department of Environmental Quality undertook a two-year project to determine the extend of fuel and emissions savings that Oklahoma school district might expect by instituting a maximum five-minute school bus idling policy. This report offers the study's findings to public school districts in Oklahoma and elsewhere. Results indicate that for every five minutes of daily idling time reduced over the course of a school year, 7.5 gallons of fuel per bus can be saved for a collective savings of more than 58,000 gallons of diesel fuel saved annually.

Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool 11/1/2008

The Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool helps fleets, consumers, and business owners create a strategy to reudce conventional fuel use in fleet and personal vehicles. This interactive tool allows users to evaluate and calculate petroleum reductions by choosing one or a combination of methods.

Improving Truck Efficiency and Reducing Idling Downing, K.; Matthews, S. 10/1/2010 Reports

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Portland, Oregon

Oregon's Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) authorized this study into improving heavy-duty vehicle efficiency while reducing idling. Appendixes include a comparison of idle reduction technologies, a compendium of idling regulationsl, state and federal anti-idling initiatives, and various idle reduction technologies. </p><p>DEQ recommends that the 2011 Oregon Legislature authorize the Environmental Quality Commission to adopt regulations substantially similar to California?s heavy-duty greenhouse gas measure, including provisions for financial hardship deferrals, with adequate lead-time and notice to all affected parties. The details of this recommendation begin on page 35 of this report. DEQ also recommends that the 2011 Legislature authorize the Environmental Quality Commission to adopt regulations limiting unnecessary idling by commercial vehicles, incorporating the major elements of the US Environmental Protection Agency Model Idling Law that itself was the result of a national stakeholder consensus to provide effective, realistic and uniform controls on unnecessary idling across the country.

To Idle or Not to Idle: That is the Question 11/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Should I idle my car to warm it up before I drive? Should I shut the engine off while waiting to pick up a passenger or for a train to go by? Is it better to pick up food at a drive-through or to park and go into the restaurant? These are common questions that people ask when they want to know more about how to drive "green." There are conflicting answers in the literature, which has led to confusion. This poster presents the results of measurements performed on both diesel and gasoline passenger vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory. The answers are found to depend on vehicle type, ambient temperature, time, local laws, and what criteria are used to define "green."

Idling: Cruising the Fuel Inefficiency Expressway Gaines, L.; Levinson, T. 6/1/2011 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The impacts of idling are substantial, with as much as 2 billion gallons of fuel burned unnecessarily each year in the United States at a cost of over $4 billion. The extra hours of engine operation also cost the owners money for more frequent maintenance and overhauls. In addition, idling vehicles emit particulates (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). These emissions, along with noise from idling vehicles, have led to many local and state restrictions on idling.</p><p> This study presents the first comparison of IR technologies with each other and with idling on the basis of both costs and full fuel?]cycle emissions, for different locations, fuel prices, and idling patterns. The preferences described are for the technologies that reduce total emissions the most and cost truck owners the least. We also discuss how regulatory issues and legislation affect IR, what financial incentives help to promote IR, and how outreach and education approaches can be adopted to reduce the need to idle. Finally, we offer a prediction of how future research and development (R&D), regulations, and citizens can help to improve fuel economy and clean the air. This report focuses on heavy-duty vehicles.

Compendium of Idling Regulations 9/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

American Transportation Research Institute, Arlington, Virginia

The American Transportation Research Institute has issued a list of idling regulations, current as of January 2009, passed by several cities, counties, and states. Included are Maricopa County, Arizona; California; Placer County, California; City of Sacramento, California; City of Aspen and City and County of Denver, Colorado; Connecticut; Delaware; District of Columbia; City of Atlanta, Georgia; Hawaii; several cities and counties in Illinois; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; Minneapolis, Owatonna, and St. Cloud, Minnesota; City and County of St. Louis, Missouri; Nevada; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New York State; New York City; New Rochelle, New York; Rockland County, New York; Philadelphia and Alleghany County, Pennsylvania; Rhode Island; South Carolina; several cities and counties in Texas; Utah; and Virginia.

Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits 8/12/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

ORNL Operations Best Practices Guide: Idle Reduction Curran, S., Settles, K; Keel-Blackmon, K. 3/15/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition, Knoxville, Tennessee

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sustainable Campus Initiative, working with the local DOE Clean Cities program, has created an idle reduction guide that explains the benefits of reducing idling. Included in the guide is a collection of vehicle manufacturer recommendations that will help improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce tailpipe emissions.

Idling Reduction for Emergency and Other Service Vehicles 5/7/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This is a fact sheet about reducing idling for emergency and service vehicles. Emergency vehicles, such as police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks, along with other service vehicles such as armored cars, are often exempt from laws that limit engine idling. However, these vehicles can save fuel and reduce emissions with technologies that allow them to perform vital services without idling.

Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies Gaines, L.; Weikersheimer, P. 9/1/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This report considers the costs and return on investment for idling reduction equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space equipment owners.

Case Study - Idle Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles 1/1/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise. It highlights nine fleets from very different types of organizations that implemented a range of IRT solutions. The interviewed fleets included typical town/county police, fire, and ambulance fleets. Some unique Federal government fleets (fire and border patrol) were also included. This case study was sponsored by the Clean Cities program and developed by Argonne National Laboratory and Energetics Incorporated. The fleets discussed in this case study provided critical assistance with information collection by providing access to staff to discuss their approach, experiences, and other relevant information regarding their IRT selection and use.

Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles 5/7/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

Case Study Summary - Idle Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles Gaines, L. 7/1/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This fact sheet summarizes the findings in a study that investigated the adoption of idling reduction technologies by nine emergency-vehicle fleets, including police, ambulance, and fire engines and trucks.

Summary - Economics of Idling Reduction Options for Long-Haul Trucks Gaines, L. 8/1/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This fact sheet summarizes a study that evaluated the costs and return on investment for idling reduction equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space equipment owners.

National Idling Reduction Network News 1/16/2017 Newsletters

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This monthly web publication covers news and developments in the heavy-duty truck idling reduction industry. The link takes you to the current newsletter and has a link to archived issues.

Work Truck Idling Reduction 3/9/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.