Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

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Title Author Date Category
Model Year 2018: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/11/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Electric Vehicle Charger Selection Guide 1/11/2018 Reports

Redwood Coast Energy Authority, Eureka, California; Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, California; Siskiyou County Economic Development Council, Yreka, California; Local Government Commission/Civic Spark, Sacramento, California

The goal of this guide is to help site hosts and others learn about, evaluate, and compare the features of EV charging equipment to assist them in selecting a charger for their application. Additionally, this guide provides an overview of electric vehicle charger equipment, how it works, and considerations when making a purchase.

Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports Johnson, C. 12/12/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2016 Curtin,S.; Gangi, J. 12/4/2017 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, D.C.

This report examines global fuel cell and hydrogen trends during 2016, covering business and financial activities, federal programs, and aspects of the various market sectors for fuel cells which include transportation. The report also covers 2016 activities related to hydrogen production, power-to-gas, energy storage, and components used by fuel cell and hydrogen technologies.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36 Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G. 12/1/2017 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2017 Bourbon, E. 11/29/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2017 and October 16, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 23 cents from $2.26 to $2.49; diesel increased 29 cents from $2.47 to $2.76; CNG price increased 2 cents from $2.15 to $2.17; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $1.99 to $2.10; propane decreased 6 cents from $2.84 to $2.78; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 19 cents from 2.49 to $2.68.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.32 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.24 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017 Eudy, L.; Post, M. 11/21/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. These data and analyses help provide needed information to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2017 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2016 through July 2017. The primary results presented in the report are from five demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; AFCB Project at the University of California at Irvine; AFCB Project at Orange County Transportation Authority; and AFCB Project at Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 11/14/2017 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Utility Investment in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Key Regulatory Considerations Allen, P.; Van Horn, G.; Goetz, M.; Bradbury, J.; Zyla, K. 11/13/2017 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, LLC, Concord, Massachusetts; Georgetown Climate Center, Washington, D.C.

The report provides an overview of the accelerating electrification of the transportation sector and explores the role of state utility regulators in evaluating potential investments by electric utilities in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. The report identifies key considerations for regulators, including the amount of charging infrastructure needed to support PEVs, ways that regulators can help ensure equitable access to charging infrastructure, and opportunities to maximize the benefits of utility investment in charging infrastructure.

The Barriers to Acceptance of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: 2017 Update Singer, M. 11/9/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the previous version published in December 2016, details findings from a study in February 2017 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J. 10/17/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

From Gas to Grid: Building Charging Infrastructure to Power Electric Vehicle Demand Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 10/3/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

This report identifies the key hurdles that have inhibited the growth of charging infrastructure, and explains how they might be overcome, along with the best practices for siting chargers and designing electricity tariffs for EV charging stations.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Rocky Mountain Instutute website.

Enabling Fast Charging: A Technology Gap Assessment Howell, D.; Boyd, S.; Cunningham, B.; Gillard, S.; Slezak, L.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Nelson, P.A.; Robertson, D.C.; Stephens, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Michelbacher, C.J.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Tanim, T.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Li, O.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Zhang, J. 10/1/2017 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In this report, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory teamed with Argonne National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to identify technical gaps to implementing an extreme fast charging network in the United States. This report highlights technical gaps at the battery, vehicle, and infrastructure levels.

Biodiesel Basics 9/29/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Handbook Kelly, K.; Melendez, M.; Gonzales, J.; Lynch, L.; Boale, B.; Kohout, J. 9/28/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Gladstein, Neandross & Associates, Santa Monica, California

To ensure the safety of personnel and facilities, vehicle maintenance facilities are required by law and by guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the International Fire Code (IFC) to exhibit certain design features. They are also required to be fitted with certain fire protection equipment and devices because of the potential for fire or explosion in the event of fuel leakage or spills. All fuels have an explosion or fire potential if specific conditions are present.</p><p>This handbook covers the primary elements that must be considered when developing a CNG vehicle maintenance facility design that will protect against the ignition of natural gas releases. It also discusses specific protocols and training needed to ensure safety.

Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects Kelly, K.; Singer, M. 9/27/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

Electric-Drive Vehicles 9/11/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2017 Bourbon, E. 9/5/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2017 and July 17, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 12 cents from $2.38 to $2.26; diesel decreased 8 cents from $2.55 to $2.47; CNG price is unchanged at $2.15; ethanol (E85) decreased 12 cents from $2.11 to $1.99; propane increased 1 cent from $2.83 to $2.84; and biodiesel (B20) is unchanged at 2.49.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.11 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.32 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Melaina, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

Transportation Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Technology and Market Assessment Birky, A.K.; Laughlin, M.; Tartaglia, K.; Price, R.; Lin, Z. 9/1/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oakridge, Tennessee

This report focuses on electrification of government, commercial, and industrial fleets and provides the background necessary to understand the potential for electrification in these markets. Specifically, it covers the challenges and opportunities for electrification in the service and goods and people movement fleets to guide policy makers and researchers in identifying where federal investment in electrification could be most beneficial.

2017 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 8/11/2017 Reports

California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the State's decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Fuel Consumption Sensitivity of Conventional and Hybrid Electric Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles to Driving Style Thomas, J.; Huff, S.; West, B.; and Chambon, P. 8/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation. The vehicle energy model focused on the limitations of regenerative braking in combination with varying levels of driving-style aggressiveness to show that this could account for greater FE variation in an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle. A closely matched pair of gasoline-fueled sedans, one an HEV and the other having a conventional powertrain, was chosen for both modeling and chassis dynamometer experimental comparisons. Results indicate that the regenerative braking limitations could be a main contributor to the greater HEV FE variation under the range of drive cycles considered. The complete body of results gives insight into the range of fuel use penalties that results from aggressive driving and why the variation can be larger on a percent basis for an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle, while the absolute fuel use penalty for aggressive driving is generally larger for conventional vehicles than HEVs.

Summary - Economics of Idling Reduction Options for Long-Haul Trucks Gaines, L. 8/1/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This fact sheet summarizes a study that evaluated the costs and return on investment for idling reduction equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space equipment owners.

Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel Tomich, M.; Mintz, M. 8/1/2017 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This case study examines the production and use of R-CNG--derived from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste--to fuel heavy-duty refuse trucks and other natural gas vehicles in Sacramento, California. It highlights the joint endeavor of Atlas Disposal Industries, a waste management and recycling services company, and CleanWorld, a technology provider specializing in anaerobic digesters.

Cow Power: A Case Study of Renewable Compressed Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel Tomich, M.; Mintz, M. 8/1/2017 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This case study explores the production and use of R-CNG--derived from dairy farm manure--to fuel heavy-duty milk tanker trucks operating in Indiana, Michigan, Tennessee, and Kentucky. It describes the joint endeavor of Fair Oaks Farms, an Indiana-based large dairy cooperative, and ampCNG, a provider of natural gas refueling infrastructure.

Renewable Diesel as a Major Transportation Fuel in California 8/1/2017 Reports

Gladstein, Neandross & Associates, Santa Monica, California

This report describes the benefits, opportunities, and challenges to renewable diesel as a transportation fuel in California and the United States as a whole. Renewable diesel reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants from heavy-duty diesel engines. Consumption of renewable diesel in California's transportation sector exceeds a quarter of a billion gallons per year. However, significant challenges and uncertainties regarding renewable diesel supply must be addressed before it can replace conventional diesel as the major fuel in California and the United States.

Case Study Summary - Idle Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles Gaines, L. 7/1/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This fact sheet summarizes the findings in a study that investigated the adoption of idling reduction technologies by nine emergency-vehicle fleets, including police, ambulance, and fire engines and trucks.

Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 6/30/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 5/22/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/22/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary results from a fleet of 3 BEBs operated by King County Metro in Seattle, Washington.

Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston Eudy, L. 5/22/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

Guideline for Determining the Modifications Required for Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facilities Bowerson, D. 5/17/2017 Reports

NGVAmerica, Washington, DC

The growth of natural gas vehicle (NGV) fleets in recent years has increased the need for additional gaseous fuel maintenance facilities across the country. The guidelines describe the modifications necessary for existing liquid fuel maintenance facilities to service compressed and liquefied NGVs. Additionally, the document outlines the basic national codes and the rationale and assumptions used to develop these codes.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2017 Bourbon, E. 5/17/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2017 and April 17, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 6 cents from $2.32 to $2.38; diesel decreased 3 cents from $2.58 to $2.55; CNG price increased 4 cents from $2.11 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 7 cents from $2.04 to $2.11; propane increased 3 cents from $2.80 to $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 8 cents from $2.57 to 2.49.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.23 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.36 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

The Business Case for Fuel Cells: Delivering Sustainable Value Curtin, S.; Gangi, J. 4/25/2017 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Walshington, D.C.

The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016.

Implementing Workplace Charging within Federal Agencies Smith, M. 4/19/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland

This case study, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office, draws from available information and lessons learned from federal agencies that have piloted plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) workplace charging programs. It can be challenging for organizations to involve all the key stakeholders needed to develop a charging program, but engaging them at an early stage can simplify the process of setting an adequate plan for the workplace. Key stakeholders may include workplace charging managers, facilities managers, parking managers, employee PEV drivers, legal counsel, employee benefits managers, and union representatives.</p><p>Multiple PEV charging stations are available on the GSA schedule. Agencies will need to select the charging station type and design that is most appropriate for each specific worksite - Level 1, Level 2, or DC Fast Charging. In addition, the GSA Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) can help reduce upfront costs, which will help keep the reimbursement fees within the threshold of what employees are willing to pay.

Model Year 2017: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 4/18/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

EVgo Fleet and Tariff Analysis; Phase I: California Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 4/4/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Louisville, Colorado

Public direct current (DC) fast chargers are anticipated to play an important role in accelerating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and mitigating emissions. This project analyzed charging session data in 2016 from all 230 EVgo DCFC stations in California to determine the key factors that contribute to the electricity costs and alternatives that may be available to reduce those costs, and to provide guidance for future rate design discussions.

Work Truck Idling Reduction 3/9/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

Hydrogen Storage 3/7/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

This fact sheet, produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, describes hydrogen storage, including near-term hydrogen storage solutions and research needs and long-term research directions.

Gas-Saving Tips 2/28/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

This fact sheet for consumers describes a few simple tips to help obtain the best possible fuel economy from vehicles and to reduce fuel costs.

2015 Bioenergy Market Report Warner. E.; Moriarty, K.; Lewis, J.; Milbrandt, A.; Schwab, A. 2/27/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2017 Bourbon, E. 2/27/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2017 and January 15, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 10 cents from $2.22 to $2.32; diesel increased 10 cents from $2.48 to $2.58; CNG price increased 5 cents from $2.06 to $2.11; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $1.93 to $2.04; propane increased 12 cents from $2.68 to $2.80; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 11 cents from $2.46 to 2.57.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.21 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Building Partnerships | Growing Markets; 2017 Ethanol Indystry Outlook 2/17/2017 Reports

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

RFA's Ethanol Industry Outlook is a catalog of important statistics for America's ethanol industry, providing the most up-to-date graphs, charts and facts about the production and use of fuel ethanol.

Notes: This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Renewable Fuels Association website.

Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement Clinton, B.; Johnson, C.; Moriarty, K.; Newes, E.; Vimmerstedt, L. 2/10/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado

Anecdotal evidence suggests retail E85 prices may track retail gasoline prices rather than wholesale costs. This indicates E85 prices may be higher than they would be if priced on a cost basis hence limiting adoption by some price-sensitive consumers. Using publicly available and proprietary E85 and regular gasoline price data, we examine pricing behavior in the market for E85. Specifically, we assess the extent to which local retail competition in E85 markets decreases E85 retail prices. Results of econometric analysis suggest that higher levels of retail competition (measured in terms of station density) are associated with lower E85 prices at the pump. While more precise causal estimates may be produced from more comprehensive data, this study is the first to our knowledge that estimates the spatial competition dimension of E85 pricing behavior by firms. This technical report elaborates on a related presentation.

National Idling Reduction Network News 1/16/2017 Newsletters

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This monthly web publication covers news and developments in the heavy-duty truck idling reduction industry. The link takes you to the current newsletter and has a link to archived issues.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

A Life-Cycle Analysis of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Based Ethanol 1/12/2017 Reports

ICF International, Inc., Washington, D.C.

This analysis, conducted by ICF for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, indicates the GHG reductions from corn ethanol is 43% (2014) relative to RFS base year of 2005 100% gasoline. The 43% reduction is a look back over the past decade. The same study concludes that, if current trends continue, corn ethanol reductions in GHG would rise to 50% by 2022.

Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts Wood, E.; Raghavan, S.; Rames, C.; Eichman, K.; Melaina, M. 1/6/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Workplace Charging Challenge - Progress Update 2016: A New Sustainable Commute 12/12/2016 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

In June 2016, the Workplace Charging Challenge distributed its third annual survey to 295 partners with the goal of tracking partners' progress and identifying trends in workplace charging. This document summarizes findings from the survey and highlights accomplishments of the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge.

Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles - National Benchmark Report (Second Edition) Singer, M. 12/8/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report details broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Understanding consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to, and opportunities for, the broad acceptance of new technologies. The data detailed in this report represents the first two years of similar studies that are planned to be completed annually, allowing for tracking of public perception associated with PEV deployment efforts. This report is intended to support the evaluation of whether advancing vehicle technologies and changing vehicle availability align with evolving consumer expectations and interests over time.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2016 Bourbon, E. 12/1/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2016 and October 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 4 cents from $2.26 to $2.22; diesel increased 2 cents from $2.46 to $2.48; CNG price increased 1 cent from $2.05 to $2.06; ethanol (E85) decreased 6 cents from $1.99 to $1.93; propane decreased 8 cents from $2.76 to $2.68; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 8 cents from $2.54 to 2.46.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.16 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.29 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Low-Carbon Natural Gas for Transportation: Well-to-Wheels Emissions and Potential Market Assessment in California Penev, M.; Melaina, M.; Bush, B.; Muratori, M.; Warner, E.; Chen, Y. 12/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report improves on the understanding of the long-term technology potential of low-carbon natural gas (LCNG) supply pathways by exploring transportation market adoption potential through 2035 in California. Techno-economic assessments of each pathway are developed to compare the capacity, cost, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LCNG production pathways. The study analyzes the use of fuel from these pathways in light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle applications. Economic and life-cycle GHG emissions analysis suggest that landfill gas resources are an attractive and relatively abundant resource in terms of cost and GHG reduction potential, followed by waste water treatment plants and biomass with gasification and methanation. Total LCNG production potential is on the order of total natural gas demand anticipated in a success scenario for future natural gas vehicle adoption by 2035 across light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle markets (110 trillion Btu/year).

National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I Melaina, M.; Bush, B.; Eichman, J.; Wood, E.; Stright, D.; Krishnan, V.; Keyser, D.; Mai, T.; McLaren, J. 12/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016 Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 12/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2016, 7th Edition Curtin, S.; Gangi, J. 11/30/2016 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, D.C.

This November 2016 report, the seventh in a series, provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, profiles of leading states, and a catalog of recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 - 2016 11/10/2016 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide emissions, fuel economy and technology usage related to model year (MY) 1975 through 2016 light-duty vehicles sold in the United States. (EPA publication # EPA-420-R-16-010)

Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition) Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.; Christensen, E.D.; Fioroni, G.; Moriarty. K.; Yanowitz, J. 11/8/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Eco Engineering, Cincinnati, Ohio

This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

Estimated Bounds and Important Factors for Fuel Use and Consumer Costs of Connected and Automated Vehicles Stephens, T.S.; Gonder, J.; Chen, Y.; Lin, Z.; Liu, C.; Gohlke, D. 11/1/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

This report details a study of the potential effects of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies on vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel efficiency, and consumer costs. Related analyses focused on a range of light-duty CAV technologies in conventional powertrain vehicles -- from partial automation to full automation, with and without ridesharing -- compared to today's base-case scenario. Analysis results revealed widely disparate upper- and lower-bound estimates for fuel use and VMT, ranging from a tripling of fuel use to decreasing light-duty fuel use to below 40% of today's level. This wide range reflects uncertainties in the ways that CAV technologies can influence vehicle efficiency and use through changes in vehicle designs, driving habits, and travel behavior. The report further identifies the most significant potential impacting factors, the largest areas of uncertainty, and where further research is particularly needed.

Clean Cities Program Contacts 10/19/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Contact information for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program staff and for the coordinators of the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry Lommele, S.; Ryder, C. 10/10/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, ICF International; Golden, Colorado, Fairfax, Virginia

In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public wellbeing and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards Kelly, K. 10/3/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

Frequently Asked Questions About the EPAct State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Program 10/1/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC

Clean Cities: AFLEET Measures Impacts of Vehicles and Fuels 10/1/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET factsheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

Natural Gas Basics (Spanish Version) 9/30/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to natural gas, which powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

Propane Basics (Spanish Version) 9/30/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to propane, which powers more than 143,000 vehicles in the United States and 23 million worldwide. Fleets around the United States have successfully implemented propane vehicles in many types of applications, including school, shuttle, and transit buses as well as vans, taxis, law enforcement vehicles, street sweepers, and vocational trucks. Propane is also frequently used in off-road applications, such as forklifts, commercial landscape mowers and equipment, and other farm equipment. The advantages of propane include its domestic availability, performance, and emissions benefits.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2016 Bourbon, E. 9/19/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2016 and July 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 20 cents from $2.06 to $2.26; diesel increased 33 cents from $2.13 to $2.46; CNG price increased 3 cents from $2.02 to $2.05; ethanol (E85) increased 15 cents from $1.84 to $1.99; propane decreased 1 cent from $2.77 to $2.76; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 31 cents from $2.23 to 2.54.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.21 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Fleets Run Cleaner on Natural Gas; Emissions and Environmental Benefits of Natural Gas Vehicle 9/16/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

NGVAmerica, Washington, D.C

Lower greenhouse gas and environmental related emissions are priorities for shippers, trucking fleets, municipal refuse vehicles and transit buses across the country. Natural gas provides clear advantages among alternative transportation fuels. This fact sheet explains the emission and environmental benefits associated with CNG and LNG, as well as the technical reasons behind the calculations and inputs that were chosen.

Guidance on Biogas Quality and RIN Generation when Biogas is Injected into a Commercial Pipeline for use in Producing Renewable CNG or LNG under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program 9/8/2016 Reports

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Compliance Division, Washington, D.C.

This EPA guidance document clarifies biogas quality and RIN generation requirements that apply to renewable fuel production pathways involving the injection into a commercial pipeline of biogas for use in producing renewable compressed natural gas (CNG) or renewable liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies Gaines, L.; Weikersheimer, P. 9/1/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This report considers the costs and return on investment for idling reduction equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space equipment owners.

Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning Committee, N. 8/29/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

Employers considering whether workplace charging is right for their organization or employers considering how many plug-in electric vehicle charging stations to install will want to start by assessing employee demand. Partners in the Workplace Charging Challenge set a minimum goal of providing charging access for a portion of PEV-driving employees and a best practice goal of meeting all PEV-driving employee demand. This sample employee survey will help employers to assess interest in workplace charging, and determine the appropriate type and amount of charging stations to install.

Natural Gas: A Clean, Safe and Smart Choice for the Waste and Recycling Industry 8/24/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

NGVAmerica, Solid Waste Association of North America; Washington, D.C., Silver Spring, Maryland

This fact sheet details basic NGV information, safe operation practices, and proper maintenance for natural gas collection and transfer vehicles.

The Growing Presence of Propane in Pupil Transportation 8/2/2016 Reports

Propane Education & Research Council

School districts all over the United States are turning to propane autogas to fuel their buses. In 2014, an estimated 7,000 propane autogas buses drove a half a million students to school in 45 states. This white paper highlights the added safety from the quieter propane engine, the environmental benefits from propane, and the reduced total cost of ownership of owning a propane bus.

Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A. 8/1/2016 Reports

Energetics, Columbia, Maryland; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, clean cities

Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles 7/13/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace Smith, M. 7/1/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated

Level 1 charging (110-120 V) can be a good fit for many workplace charging programs. For electric vehicles typically purchased by most employees, Level 1 charging often has sufficient power to fully restore vehicle driving range during work hours.

Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging Lommele, S.; Dafoe, W. 6/29/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Resources Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C.; and Newcomb, J. 6/15/2016 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

Several key forces are combining to accelerate the pace of EV adoption, such as customer interest, increased scale of production, and availability of charging infrastructure. This report focuses on the changing incentives and emerging technological options that are shifting the way utilities and other grid operators perceive EV charging opportunities. Together, these two sets of forces are creating new opportunities and increased scale for smart EV-charging solutions. It also covers the important questions that emerge for regulators, policymakers, and utilities.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Rocky Mountain Institute's website.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Natural Gas Basics 6/8/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2016 Bourbon, E. 6/8/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2016 and April 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 8 cents from $1.98 to $2.06; diesel decreased 10 cents from $2.23 to $2.13; CNG price decreased 7 cents from $2.09 to $2.02; ethanol (E85) decreased 2 cents from $1.86 to $1.84; propane decreased 8 cents from $2.85 to $2.77; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 18 cents from $2.41 to 2.23.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.04 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025-2030) Technologies Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Ward, J.; Joseck, F.; Gohlke, D.; Lindauer, A.; Ramsden, T.; Biddy, M.; Alexander, M.; Barnhart, S.; Sutherland, I.; Verduzco, L.; Wallington, T.J. 6/1/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California; FCA US LLC, Henderson, Colorado; General Motors, Flint, Michigan; Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California; Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan

This study provides a comprehensive lifecycle analysis of the cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of vehicle-fuel pathways, as well as the levelized cost of driving and cost of avoided GHG emissions. This study also estimates the technology readiness levels of key fuel and vehicle technologies along the pathways. The analysis spans a full portfolio of midsize light-duty alternative fuel and conventional vehicles.

Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 6/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

Propane Basics 5/31/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet answers frequently asked questions about propane as a transportation fuel.

Global EV Outlook 2016 5/31/2016 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

In 2015, the global threshold of one million EVs on the road was exceeded, an achievement resulting from lowered vehicle costs, extended vehicle range, and reduced consumer barriers. However, EVs account for a small fraction of the global vehicle stock for almost all transport modes. This report aims to provide an update on recent developments in EV registrations, EV stock estimates, and the availability and characteristics of electric vehicle charging equipment. It also touches upon recent research and policy support.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Energy Agency's website.

Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type McLaren, J.; Miller, J.; O'Shaughnessy, E.; Wood, E.; Shapiro, E. 4/11/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

EPAct State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Results 4/1/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Series of annual reports from the State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Program about how covered fleets met their Energy Policy Act (EPAct) requirements each year.

2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G.; Moore, S. 4/1/2016 Reports

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report is the seventh edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies.

Case Study - Propane Bakery Delivery Step Vans Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A. 4/1/2016 Reports

Energetics, Washington, D.C.; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

A switch to propane from diesel by a major Midwest bakery fleet showed promising results, including a significant displacement of petroleum, a drop in greenhouse gases and a fuel cost savings of seven cents per mile, according to a study recently completed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory for the Clean Cities program.

Drive Electric Vermont Case Study Wagner, F.; Roberts, D.; Francfort, J.; White, S. 3/21/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, Vermont; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is working to identify barriers and opportunities to plugin electric vehicle (PEV) adoption. The Department of Energy developed a case study with Drive Electric Vermont to identify the lessons learned and best practices for successful PEV and charging infrastructure deployment in small and midsize communities. This is a snapshot of the findings.

Workplace Charging: Charging Up University Campuses Giles, C.; Ryder, C.; Lommele, S. 3/4/2016 Reports

ICF International, Fairvax, Virginia; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends 3/2/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

Clean Cities Technical Assistance Project (Tiger Teams) 2/18/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This two-page fact sheet describes Clean Cities' technical assistance (Tiger Teams) capabilities and projects, both completed and ongoing. Tiger Teams are a critical element of the Clean Cities program, providing on-the-ground consultation to help inform program strategies. The knowledge Tiger Team experts gain from these experiences often helps inform other alternative fuels activities, such as needed research, codes and standards revisions, and new training resources.

Renewable Fuel Standard Program: Standards for 2014, 2015, and 2016 and Biomass-Based Diesel Volume for 2017; Final Rule 2/12/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Under section 211 of the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to set renewable fuel percentage standards every year. This action establishes the annual percentage standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel that apply to all motor vehicle gasoline and diesel produced or imported in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. The EPA is establishing a cellulosic biofuel volume for all three years that is below the applicable volume specified in the Act, and is also rescinding the cellulosic biofuel standard for 2011. Relying on statutory waiver authorities, the EPA is adjusting the applicable volumes of advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel for all three years. The 2016 standards are expected to spur further progress in overcoming current constraints in renewable fuel distribution infrastructure, which in turn is expected to lead to substantial growth over time in the production and use of renewable fuels. In this action, EPA is also establishing the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel for 2017. Finally, EPA is setting the compliance and attest reporting deadlines for the years 2013, 2014, and 2015, as well as finalizing regulatory amendments to clarify the scope of the existing algal biofuel pathway. This final rule is effective on February 12, 2016.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2016 Bourbon, E. 2/12/2016 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2016 and January 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 37 cents from $2.35 to $1.98; diesel decreased 36 cents from $2.59 to $2.23; CNG price is unchanged at $2.09; ethanol (E85) decreased 32 cents from $2.18 to $1.86; propane decreased 5 cents from $2.90 to $2.85; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 25 cents from $2.66 to 2.41.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.11 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.44 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder Moriarty, K. 2/10/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/3/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles - National Benchmark Report Singer, M. 2/2/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the form of gasoline and diesel. In order to make these technologies most appealing to the marketplace, they must take consumer sentiment into account. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround the advanced vehicle technologies of plug-in electric vehicles and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, provide mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

2015 Energy Balance for the Corn-Ethanol Industry Gallagher, P.W.; Yee, W.C.; Baumes, H.S. 2/1/2016 Reports

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

The ratio of energy in a gallon of ethanol relative to the external fossil energy required to produce the corn and process and ship the ethanol is an important measure of sustainability of the corn ethanol industry. This study presents estimates of the current energy balance based on data collected by the USDA.