Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Clean Cities Coalitions 2016 Activity Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/10/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) national network of Clean Cities Coalitions advance the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to promote the use of domestic fuels within transportation. The nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, bring together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to use alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. To ensure success, coalitions leverage a robust set of expert resources and tools provided by national laboratories and DOE. Each year, Clean Cities coordinators submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online tool that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels; use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); IR initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the submitted data to determine how broadly energy use in the U.S. has shifted due to coalition activities, which are summarized in this report.

Transitioning to zero-emission heavy-duty freight vehicles Moultak, M.; Lutsey, N.; Hall, D. 9/26/2018 Reports

The International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This report compares the evolution of heavy-duty diesel, diesel hybrid, natural gas, fuel cell, and battery electric technologies in the 2025-2030 timeframe. It synthesizes data from the research literature, demonstrations, and low-volume commercial trucks regarding their potential to deliver freight with zero tailpipe emissions. Additionally, it analyzes the emerging technologies by their cost of ownership and life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for the three vehicle markets of China, Europe, and the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2018 Bourbon, E. 9/25/2018 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2018 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2018 and July 16, 2018, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 21 cents from $2.67 to $2.88; diesel increased 21 cents from $3.03 to $3.24; CNG increased 4 cents from $2.18 to $2.22; ethanol (E85) increased 14 cents from $2.21 to $2.35; propane decreased 2 cents from $2.83 to $2.81; and biodiesel (B20) increased 19 cents from 2.87 to $3.06.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.66 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.17 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Ethanol Basics 9/11/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Ethanol is a widely used, domestically produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. Ethanol can be blended with gasoline in different amounts. In fact, more than 98% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol to oxygenate the fuel and help to reduce air pollution. Using ethanol in fuel also helps the nation increase the use of domestic alternative fuels, thereby potentially reducing reliance on imported oil. Gasoline and gasoline blendstocks can also use ethanol as an octane enhancer to increase vehicle performance.

Demonstrating Plug-in Electric Vehicles Smart Charging and Storage Supporting the Grid Gadh, R. 8/23/2018 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

This report presents the development and deployment of a PEV charging system consisting of smart charging, vehicle-to-grid, vehicle-to-building, demand response, and power quality sustainable capabilities. The goal of this system is to achieve grid resiliency and economic benefit to PEV fleet owners. As a result of the project, the research team from the University of California, Los Angeles validated the viability of bi-directional electric vehicle infrastructure, as well as the associated air quality improvements and financial benefits from the system.

Model Year 2018: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 8/7/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Re-Additization of Commercial Biodiesel Blends During Long-Term Storage Christensen, E.D.; Alleman, T.; McCormick, R.L. 8/1/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Commercial biodiesel blends were aged at 43 degrees C while monitoring stability. The oxidation stability -- or oxidation reserve expressed as Rancimat induction period (IP) -- gradually decreased from its initial value. At a predetermined IP threshold, an antioxidant was used to restore IP to the ASTM D7467 specification minimum of 6 h, referred to as re-additization. At lower IP values, the amount of antioxidant required increased significantly, and the effectiveness tended to be reduced. Once IP fell to essentially zero, the acid content increased to above the allowable limit and insoluble material was also detected. Storage life was increased relative to the as-received fuels as evidenced by longer time to produce acids. Experience in the field may vary based on storage conditions; however, these results indicate re-additization can significantly increase storage life of biodiesel blends when used with regular monitoring of IP and acid number. An assessment of the storage stability of the as-received fuels showed that the initial IP did not predict storage behavior, although fuels above the specification minimum remained stable for >12 weeks accelerated aging (1 year simulated).

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Elsevier ScienceDirect website.

The Role of Demand-Side Incentives and Charging Infrastructure on Plug-in Electric Vehicle Adoption: Analysis of US States. Paper No. 074032 Narassimhan, E.; Johnson, C. 7/13/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Tufts University, Medford, Massachussets; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In the U.S., over 400 state and local incentives have been issued to increase the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) since 2008. This article quantifies the influence of key incentives and enabling factors like charging infrastructure and receptive demographics on PEV adoption. The study focuses on three central questions. First, do consumers respond to certain types of state level vehicle purchase incentives? Second, does the density of public charging infrastructure increase PEV purchases? Finally, does the impact of various factors differ for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and vehicle attributes within each category? Based on a regression of vehicle purchase data from 2008 to 2016, we found that tax incentives and charging infrastructure significantly influence per capita PEV purchases. Within tax incentives, rebates are generally more effective than tax credits. BEV purchases are more affected by tax incentives than PHEVs. The correlation of public charging and vehicle purchases increases with the battery-only driving range of a PHEV, while decreasing with increasing driving range of BEVs. Results indicate that early investments in charging infrastructure, particularly along highways; tax incentives targeting BEVs at the lower end of the price premium and PHEVs with higher battery only driving range, and better reflection of the environmental cost of owning gasoline vehicles are likely to increase PEV adoption in the U.S.

Notes:

This journal article (Environmental Research Letters, Volume 13, Number 7) is copyrighted by IOP Publishing and can be downloaded from the IOPScience website.

A Driving Cycle Detection Approach Using Map Service API Zhu, L.; Gonder, J.D. 7/1/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Following advancements in smartphone and portable global positioning system (GPS) data collection, wearable GPS data have realized extensive use in transportation surveys and studies. The task of detecting driving cycles (driving or car-mode trajectory segments) from wearable GPS data has been the subject of much research. Specifically, distinguishing driving cycles from other motorized trips (such as taking a bus) is the main research problem in this paper. Many mode detection methods only focus on raw GPS speed data while some studies apply additional information, such as geographic information system (GIS) data, to obtain better detection performance. Procuring and maintaining dedicated road GIS data are costly and not trivial, whereas the technical maturity and broad use of map service application program interface (API) queries offers opportunities for mode detection tasks. The proposed driving cycle detection method takes advantage of map service APIs to obtain high-quality car-mode API route information and uses a trajectory segmentation algorithm to find the best-matched API route. The car-mode API route data combined with the actual route information, including the actual mode information, are used to train a logistic regression machine learning model, which estimates car modes and non-car modes with probability rates. The experimental results show promise for the proposed method's ability to detect vehicle mode accurately.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Elsevier ScienceDirect website.

Empirical Analysis of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Under Cold Temperatures Motoaki, Y.; Yi, W.; Salisbury, S. 7/1/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Systems Engineering, Ithaca, New York

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the effects of temperature on direct current fast charger (DCFC) charging rate and discusses the impact of such effects on wider adoptions of electric vehicles. The authors conducted statistical analysis on the effects of temperature and constructed an electric vehicle charging model that can show the dynamics of DCFC charging process under different temperatures. The results indicate that DCFC charging rate can deteriorate considerably in cold temperatures. These findings may be used as a reference to identify and assess the regions that may suffer from slow charging.

Notes: This Energy Policy article (Vol. 122 (2018): pp. 162-168) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Elsevier's website.

Cooperative and Integrated Vehicle and Intersection Control for Energy Efficiency (CIVIC-E2) Hou, Y.; Seliman, S.M.S.; Wang, E.; Gonder, J.D.; Wood, E.; He, Q.; Sadek, A.W.; Su, L.; Qiao, C. 6/28/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

State University of New York, Buffalo, New York; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Recent advances in connected vehicle technologies enable vehicles and signal controllers to cooperate and improve the traffic management at intersections. This paper explores the opportunity for cooperative and integrated vehicle and intersection control for energy efficiency (CIVIC-E2) to contribute to a more sustainable transportation system. We propose a two-level approach that jointly optimizes the traffic signal timing and vehicles' approach speed, with the objective being to minimize total energy consumption for all vehicles passing through an isolated intersection. More specifically, at the intersection level, a dynamic programming algorithm is designed to find the optimal signal timing by explicitly considering the arrival time and energy profile of each vehicle. At the vehicle level, a model predictive control strategy is adopted to ensure that vehicles pass through the intersection in a timely fashion. Our simulation study has shown that the proposed CIVIC-E2 system can significantly improve intersection performance under various traffic conditions. Compared with conventional fixed-time and actuated signal control strategies, the proposed algorithm can reduce energy consumption and queue length by up to 31% and 95%, respectively.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2018 Bourbon, E. 6/14/2018 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2018 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2018 and April 16, 2018, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 17 cents from $2.50 to $2.67; diesel increased 7 cents from $2.96 to $3.03; CNG increased 1 cent from $2.17 to $2.18; ethanol (E85) increased 15 cents from $2.06 to $2.21; propane remained the same at $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) increased 3 cents from 2.84 to $2.87.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.49 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.20 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Airport Analyses Informing New Mobility Shifts: Opportunities to Adapt Energy-Efficient Mobility Services and Infrastructure: Preprint Henao, A.; Sperling, J.; Garikapati, V.; Hou, Y.; Young, S. 6/12/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

An airport is one of the most important assets for a region's economic development and connectivity with the rest of the nation and world. Key aspects for investigation of energy efficient mobility at airports is ground transportation including factors ranging from the infrastructure, mobility services, and associated revenues. Data is critical to understand the maturity of new mobility services that can inform both cities and airports on how to respond, approach, manage, and adapt to the challenges, opportunities, and uncertainties associated with shifts in new mobility that influence human behavior, energy-efficiency and sustainability strategies. One key question identified in this article is how quickly we are adapting to new mobility options - such as app-based ride-hailing and 'pooling' services - that may provide an opportunity to influence energy efficiency of ground transportation to and from airports. By starting with airports in the regions of four smart city finalists in the U.S. DOT Smart City Challenge, this paper focuses on key observability aspects of new modes and the rate of shifts in mobility patterns across San Francisco, Portland, Denver, and Kansas City. With the emerging megatrend of rising urbanization and rising air travel demand (a predicted doubling in demand by 2035), airports are expected to increasingly be on the front lines of adaptation to new transportation technology and services in terms of infrastructure investments, policies, and revenues. As airports have demonstrated the most potential and capability of any public institution to implement fees for new ride-hailing services, they are also a prime resource for collecting important data to help understand smart mobility transitions. Results focused on the shifts in revenues for ground transportation at airports offer one vantage point into the pace of transitions and adaptations in the new emerging mobility landscape, and present an opportunity to analyze how future adaptations could support more energy-efficient scenarios.

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). SAE Paper No. 2018-37-0026 Chowdhury, S.; Leitzel, L.; Zima, M.; Santacesaria, M.; Titov, G.; Lustbader, J.; Rugh, J.; Winkler, J.; Khawaja, A.; Govindarajalu, M. 5/30/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Mahle Behr Troy Inc., Troy, Michigan; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorardo; FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, Michigan

The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal subsystem loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below -10 degrees C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs. Demonstrated on a 2015 Fiat 500e BEV, this system integrates a semi-hermetic refrigeration loop with a coolant network and serves three functions: (1) heating and/or cooling vehicle traction components (battery, power electronics, and motor) (2) heating and cooling of the cabin, and (3) waste energy harvesting and re-use. The modes of operation allow a heat pump and air conditioning system to function without reversing the refrigeration cycle to improve thermal efficiency. The refrigeration loop consists of an electric compressor, a thermal expansion valve, a coolant-cooled condenser, and a chiller, the latter two exchanging heat with hot and cold coolant streams that may be directed to various components of the thermal system. The coolant-based heat distribution is adaptable and saves significant amounts of refrigerant per vehicle. Also, a coolant-based system reduces refrigerant emissions by requiring fewer refrigerant pipe joints. The authors present bench-level test data and simulation analysis and describe a preliminary control scheme for this system.

State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2017, 8th Edition Curtin, S.; Gangi, J. 5/23/2018 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, D.C.

This January 2018 report, the eighth in a series, provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, including profiles of all 50 states with a catalog of recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jan. 2017 through Dec. 2017 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/16/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2016. This report extends the data analysis through December 2017. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020.

Determining Off-Cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-1368 Jehlik, F.; Chevers, N.; Moniot, M.; Song, Y.; Hirabayashi, H.; Nomura, M.; Wood, E. 4/12/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Toyota Motor North America, Plano, Texas; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; DENSO International America Inc, Southfield, Michigan

This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state. These vehicle models were integrated into a database of measured on road testing and coupled with U.S. typical meteorological data to simulate vehicle efficiency across seasonal thermal and operational conditions for hundreds of thousands of drive cycles. Fuel economy benefits utilizing the 2-Layer HVAC technology are presented in addition to goodness of fit statistics of the modeling approach relative to the experimental test data.

Effects of Heat of Vaporization and Octane Sensitivity on Knock-Limited Spark Ignition Engine Performance. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0218 Ratcliff, M.A.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Christensen, E.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R.L. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Knock-limited loads for a set of surrogate gasolines all having nominal 100 research octane number (RON), approximately 11 octane sensitivity (S), and a heat of vaporization (HOV) range of 390 to 595 kJ/kg at 25 degrees C were investigated. A single-cylinder spark-ignition engine derived from a General Motors Ecotec direct injection (DI) engine was used to perform load sweeps at a fixed intake air temperature (IAT) of 50 degrees C, as well as knock-limited load measurements across a range of IATs up to 90 degrees C. Both DI and pre-vaporized fuel (supplied by a fuel injector mounted far upstream of the intake valves and heated intake runner walls) experiments were performed to separate the chemical and thermal effects of the fuels' knock resistance. The DI load sweeps at 50 degrees C intake air temperature showed no effect of HOV on the knock-limited performance. The data suggest that HOV acts as a thermal contributor to S under the conditions studied. Measurement of knock-limited loads from the IAT sweeps for DI at late combustion phasing showed that a 40 vol% ethanol (E40) blend provided additional knock resistance at the highest temperatures, compared to a 20 vol% ethanol blend and hydrocarbon fuel with similar RON and S. Using the pre-vaporized fuel system, all the high S fuels produced nearly identical knock-limited loads at each temperature across the range of IATs studied. For these fuels RON ranged from 99.2 to 101.1 and S ranged from 9.4 to 12.2, with E40 having the lowest RON and highest S. The higher knock-limited loads for E40 at the highest IATs examined were consistent with the slightly higher S for this fuel, and the lower engine operating condition K values arising from use of this fuel. The study highlights how fuel HOV can affect the temperature at intake valve closing, and consequently the pressure-temperature history of the end gas leading to more negative values of K, thereby enhancing the effect of S on knock resistance.

Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0667 Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Kontou, E.; Motoaki, Y.; Smart, J.; Zhou, Z. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Today's electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations. Results suggest that the hypothetical transportation network company fleet increases daily vehicle miles traveled per EV with less overall down time, resulting in increased demand for DCFC. Sites with overhead service lines are recommended for hosting DCFC stations to minimize the need for trenching underground service lines. A negative relationship was found between cost per unit of energy and fast charging utilization, underscoring the importance of prioritizing utilization over installation costs when siting DCFC stations. Although this preliminary analysis of the impacts of new mobility paradigms on alternative fueling infrastructure requirements has produced several key results, the complexity of the problem warrants further investigation.

Development of 80- and 100- Mile Work Day Cycles Representative of Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation Duran, A.; Li, K.; Kresse, J.; Kelly, K. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Cummins Inc, Columbus, Indiana

When developing and designing new technology for integrated vehicle systems deployment, standard cycles have long existed for chassis dynamometer testing and tuning of the powertrain. However, to this day with recent developments and advancements in plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle technology, no true 'work day' cycles exist with which to tune and measure energy storage control and thermal management systems. To address these issues and in support of development of a range-extended pickup and delivery Class 6 commercial vehicle, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in collaboration with Cummins analyzed 78,000 days of operational data captured from more than 260 vehicles operating across the United States to characterize the typical daily performance requirements associated with Class 6 commercial pickup and delivery operation. In total, over 2.5 million miles of real-world vehicle operation were condensed into a pair of duty cycles, an 80-mile cycle and a 100-mile cycle representative of the daily operation of U.S. class 3-6 commercial pickup and delivery trucks. Using novel machine learning clustering methods combined with mileage-based weighting, these composite representative cycles correspond to 90th and 95th percentiles for daily vehicle miles traveled by the vehicles observed. In addition to including vehicle speed vs time drive cycles, in an effort to better represent the environmental factors encountered by pickup and delivery vehicles operating across the United States, a nationally representative grade profile and key status information were also appended to the speed vs. time profiles to produce a 'work day' cycle that captures the effects of vehicle dynamics, geography, and driver behavior which can be used for future design, development, and validation of technology.

Influences on Energy Savings of Heavy Trucks Using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control McAuliffe, B.; Lamert, M.; Lu, X.-Y.; Shladover, S.; Surcel, M.-D.; Kailas, A. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of California, Berkley, California; FPInnovations, Pointe-Claire, Quebec; Volvo Group, Long Beach, California

An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode, and the followers were in CACC mode using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC string was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0 s or 87 m to 0.14 s or 4 m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mismatched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon. The results showed that energy savings generally increased in a non-linear fashion as the gap was reduced. The middle truck saved the most fuel at gaps shorter than 12 m and the trailing truck saved the most at longer gaps, while lead truck saved the least at all gaps. The cut-in and cut-out maneuvers had only a marginal effect on fuel consumption even when repeated every two miles. The presence of passenger-vehicle traffic had a measurable impact. The fuel-consumption savings on the curves was less than on the straight sections.

Leveraging Big Data Analysis Techniques for U.S. Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycle Characterization, Segmentation, and Development. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-1199 Duran, A.; Phillips, C.; Perr-Sauer, J.; Kelly, K.; Konan, A. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Under a collaborative interagency agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a series of in-depth analyses to characterize on-road driving behavior including distributions of vehicle speed, idle time, accelerations and decelerations, and other driving metrics of medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicles operating within the United States. As part of this effort, NREL researchers segmented U.S. medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicle driving characteristics into three distinct operating groups or clusters using real-world drive cycle data collected at 1 Hz and stored in NREL's Fleet DNA database. The Fleet DNA database contains millions of miles of historical drive cycle data captured from medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating across the United States. The data encompass existing DOE activities as well as contributions from valued industry stakeholder participants. For this project, data captured from 913 unique vehicles comprising 16,250 days of operation were drawn from the Fleet DNA database and examined. The Fleet DNA data used as a source for this analysis has been collected from a total of 30 unique fleets/data providers operating across 22 unique geographic locations spread across the United States. This includes locations with topographies ranging from the foothills of Denver, Colorado, to the flats of Miami, Florida. This paper includes the results of the statistical analysis performed by NREL and a discussion and detailed summary of the development of the vocational drive cycle weights and representative transient drive cycles for testing and simulation. Additional discussion of known limitations and potential future work is also included.

Exploring Telematics Big Data for Truck Platooning Opportunities. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-1083 Lammert, M.P.; Bugbee, B.; Hou, Y.; Mack, A.; Muratori, M.; Holden, J.; Duran, A.; Swaney, E. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana; Volvo Group North America, Winston Salem, North Carolina

NREL completed a temporal and geospatial analysis of telematics data to estimate the fraction of platoonable miles traveled by class 8 tractor trailers currently in operation. This paper discusses the value and limitations of very large but low time-resolution data sets, and the fuel consumption reduction opportunities from large scale adoption of platooning technology for class 8 highway vehicles in the US based on telematics data. The telematics data set consist of about 57,000 unique vehicles traveling over 210 million miles combined during a two-week period. 75% of the total fuel consumption result from vehicles operating in top gear, suggesting heavy highway utilization. The data is at a one-hour resolution, resulting in a significant fraction of data be uncategorizable, yet significant value can still be extracted from the remaining data. Multiple analysis methods to estimate platoonable miles are discussed. Results indicate that 63% of total miles driven at known hourly-average speeds happens at speeds amenable to platooning. When also considering availability of nearby partner vehicles, results indicate 55.7% of all classifiable miles driven were platoonable. Analysis also address the availability of numerous partners enabling platoons greater than 2 trucks and the percentage of trucks that would be required to be equipped with platooning equipment to realize more than 50% of the possible savings.

Range Extension Opportunities While Heating a Battery Electric Vehicle. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0066 Meyer, J.J.; Lustbader, J.; Agathocleous, N.; Vespa, A.; Rugh, J.; Titov, G. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Hanon Systems, Carey, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc, Chino, California

The Kia Soul battery electric vehicle (BEV) is available with either a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) heater or an R134a heat pump (HP) with PTC heater combination (1). The HP uses both ambient air and waste heat from the motor, inverter, and on-board-charger (OBC) for its heat source. Hanon Systems, Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory jointly, with financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy, developed and proved-out technologies that extend the driving range of a Kia Soul BEV while maintaining thermal comfort in cold climates. Improved system configuration concepts that use thermal storage and waste heat more effectively were developed and evaluated. Range extensions of 5%-22% at ambient temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to -18 degrees C were demonstrated. This paper reviews the three-year effort, including test data of the baseline and modified vehicles, resulting range extension, and recommendations for future actions.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2018 Bourbon, E. 3/29/2018 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2018 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2018 and January 16, 2018, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 1 cent from $2.49 to $2.50; diesel increased 20 cents from $2.76 to $2.96; CNG remained the same at $2.17; ethanol (E85) decreased 4 cents from $2.10 to $2.06; propane increased 5 cents from $2.78 to $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) increased 16 cents from 2.68 to $2.84.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.33 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.18 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projections: 2017-2025 - Future Infrastructure Needs for Reaching the State's Zero Emission-Vehicle Deployment Goals Bedir, A.; Crisostomo, N.; Allen, J.; Wood, E.; Rames, C. 3/27/2018 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report analyzes plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure needs in California from 2017 to 2025 in a scenario where the State's zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) deployment goals are achieved by household vehicles. The statewide infrastructure needs are evaluated by using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool, which incorporates representative statewide travel data from the 2012 California Household Travel Survey. The infrastructure solution presented in this assessment addresses two primary objectives: (1) enabling travel for battery electric vehicles and (2) maximizing the electric vehicle-miles traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis is performed at the county-level for each year between 2017 and 2025 while considering potential technology improvements. The results from this study present an infrastructure solution that can facilitate market growth for PEVs to reach the State's ZEV goals by 2025. The overall results show a need for 99k-130k destination chargers, including workplaces and public locations, and 9k-25k fast chargers. The results also show a need for dedicated or shared residential charging solutions at multi-family dwellings, which are expected to host about 120k PEVs by 2025. An improvement to the scientific literature, this analysis presents the significance of infrastructure reliability and accessibility on the quantification of charger demand.

Estimating Highway Volumes Using Vehicle Probe Data - Proof of Concept: Preprint Young, S.E.; Hou, Y.; Sadabadi, K.; Sekula, P.; Markow, D. 3/12/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland; I-95 Corridor Coalition, Rockville, Maryland

This paper examines the feasibility of using sampled commercial probe data in combination with validated continuous counter data to accurately estimate vehicle volume across the entire roadway network, for any hour during the year. Currently either real time or archived volume data for roadways at specific times are extremely sparse. Most volume data are average annual daily traffic (AADT) measures derived from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS). Although methods to factor the AADT to hourly averages for typical day of week exist, actual volume data is limited to a sparse collection of locations in which volumes are continuously recorded. This paper explores the use of commercial probe data to generate accurate volume measures that span the highway network providing ubiquitous coverage in space, and specific point-in-time measures for a specific date and time. The paper examines the need for the data, fundamental accuracy limitations based on a basic statistical model that take into account the sampling nature of probe data, and early results from a proof of concept exercise revealing the potential of probe type data calibrated with public continuous count data to meet end user expectations in terms of accuracy of volume estimates.

Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand Muratori, M. 3/6/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Nature Energy website.

Trip Energy Estimation Methodology and Model Based on Real-World Driving Data for Green Routing Applications Holden, J.; Van Til, H.; Wood, E.; Zhu, L.; Gonder, J.; Shirk, M. 2/12/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

A data-informed model to predict energy use for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed in this paper. The methodology leverages nearly 1 million miles of real-world driving data to generate the estimation model. Driving is categorized at the sub-trip level by average speed, road gradient, and road network geometry, then aggregated by category. An average energy consumption rate is determined for each category, creating an energy rates look-up table. Proposed vehicle trips are then categorized in the same manner, and estimated energy rates are appended from the look-up table. The methodology is robust and applicable to almost any type of driving data. The model has been trained on vehicle global positioning system data from the Transportation Secure Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and validated against on-road fuel consumption data from testing in Phoenix, Arizona. The estimation model has demonstrated an error range of 8.6% to 13.8%. The model results can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations to reduce energy consumption. This work provides a highly extensible framework that allows the model to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

Charging Electric Vehicles in Smart Cities: An EVI-Pro Analysis of Columbus, Ohio Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Young, S. 2/7/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) worked with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to develop a plan for the expansion of the region's network of charging stations to support increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the local market. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection (EVI-Pro) model was used to generate scenarios of regional charging infrastructure to support consumer PEV adoption. Results indicate that approximately 400 Level 2 plugs at multi-unit dwellings and 350 Level 2 plugs at non-residential locations are required to support Columbus' primary PEV goal of 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast charging is expected to remain low (due to modest anticipated adoption of short-range battery electric vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range anxiety concerns by providing a safety net for unexpected charging events. Sensitivity analyses around some key assumptions have also been performed; of these, consumer preference for PHEV versus BEV and for their electric driving range, ambient conditions, and availability of residential charging at multi-unit dwellings were identified as key determinants of the non-residential PEV charging infrastructure required to support PEV adoption. The results discussed in this report can be leveraged by similar U.S. cities as part of a strategy to accelerate PEV adoption in the light-duty vehicle market.

Initial Assessment and Modeling Framework Development for Automated Mobility Districts: Preprint Young, S.E.; Hou, Y.; Garikapati, V.; Chen, Y.; Zhu, L. 2/7/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displaces private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This paper examines a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMD). This paper reviews several such districts, including airports, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit-based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

Correlations of Platooning Track Test and Wind Tunnel Data Lammert, M.; Kelly, K.; Yanowitz, J. 2/5/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Ecoengineering, Cincinnati, Ohio

In this report, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed results from multiple, independent truck platooning projects to compare and contrast track test results with wind tunnel test results conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Some highlights from the report include compiled data, and results from four independent SAE J1321 full-size track test campaigns that were compared to LLNL wind tunnel testing results. All platooning scenarios tested demonstrated significant fuel savings with good correlation relative to following distances, but there are still unanswered questions and clear opportunities for system optimization. NOx emissions showed improvements from NREL tests in 2014 to Auburn tests in 2015 with respect to J1321 platooning track testing of Peloton system. NREL evaluated data from Volpe's Naturalistic Study of Truck Following Behavior, which showed minimal impact of naturalistic background platooning. We found significant correlation between multiple track studies, wind tunnel tests, and computational fluid dynamics, but also showed that there is more to learn regarding close formation and longer-distance effects. We also identified potential areas for further research and development, including development of advanced aerodynamic designs optimized for platooning, measurement of platoon system performance in traffic conditions, impact of vehicle lateral offsets on platooning performance, and characterization of the national potential for platooning based on fleet operational characteristics.

New EVSE Analytical Tools/Models: Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) Wood, E.; Rames, C. Muratori, M. 1/29/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This presentation addresses the fundamental question of how much charging infrastructure is needed in the United States to support PEVs. It complements ongoing EVSE initiatives by providing a comprehensive analysis of national PEV charging infrastructure requirements. The result is a quantitative estimate for a U.S. network of non-residential (public and workplace) EVSE that would be needed to support broader PEV adoption. The analysis provides guidance to public and private stakeholders who are seeking to provide nationwide charging coverage, improve the EVSE business case by maximizing station utilization, and promote effective use of private/public infrastructure investments.

Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010-2017 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 1/25/2018 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; US Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are among the fastest growing drivetrains in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the aggregate impact of PEVs is important when exploring electricity use and petroleum consumption. This report examines the sales of PEVs in the United States from 2010 to 2017, exploring vehicle sales, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and battery production.

Ethanol Strong; 2018 Ethanol Industry Outlook 1/19/2018 Reports

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

RFA's Ethanol Industry Outlook is an annual publication for information on America's ethanol industry. It provides thoughtful analysis of current issues facing the industry, along with current facts and statistics about the production and use of fuel ethanol.

Notes: This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Renewable Fuels Association website.

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 - 2017 1/12/2018 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide emissions, fuel economy and technology usage related to model year (MY) 1975 through 2017 light-duty vehicles sold in the United States. (EPA publication # EPA-420-R-18-001)

Electric Vehicle Charger Selection Guide 1/11/2018 Reports

Redwood Coast Energy Authority, Eureka, California; Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, California; Siskiyou County Economic Development Council, Yreka, California; Local Government Commission/Civic Spark, Sacramento, California

The goal of this guide is to help site hosts and others learn about, evaluate, and compare the features of EV charging equipment to assist them in selecting a charger for their application. Additionally, this guide provides an overview of electric vehicle charger equipment, how it works, and considerations when making a purchase.

Life Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Effects of Biodiesel in the United States with Induced Land Use Change Impacts Chen, R.; Qin, Z.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Taheripour, F.; Tyner, W.; O'Connor, D.; Duffield, J. 1/10/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; (S&T)2 Consultants Inc., Delta, BC, Canada; Office of the Chief Economist, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Researchers conducted updated simulations to depict a life cycle analysis (LCA) of biodiesel production from soybeans and other feedstocks in the United States. The study addressed in detail the interaction between LCA and induced land use change (ILUC) for biodiesel. Relative to conventional petroleum diesel, soy biodiesel could achieve 76% reduction in GHG emissions without considering ILUC, or 66%-72% reduction in overall GHG emissions when various ILUC cases were considered. Soy biodiesel's fossil fuel consumption rate was also 80% lower than its petroleum counterpart. Furthermore, this study examined the cause and the implication of each key parameter affecting biodiesel LCA results using a sensitivity analysis, which identified the hot spots for fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions of biodiesel so that future efforts can be made accordingly. Finally, researchers also investigated biodiesel produced from other feedstocks (canola oil and tallow) to contrast with soy biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

Notes: This Bioresource Technology article (Vol. 251 (2018): pp. 249-258) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Bring Electric School Buses to Your District (Vermont Energy Investment Corporation) 1/1/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

This toolkit helps schools across the country make the switch to electric transportation.

Navigation API Route Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment on Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data for Conventional Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint Zhu, L.; Holden, J.; Gonder, J. 12/22/2017 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The green routing strategy instructing a vehicle to select a fuel-efficient route benefits the current transportation system with fuel-saving opportunities. This paper introduces a navigation API route fuel-saving evaluation framework for estimating fuel advantages of alternative API routes based on large-scale, real-world travel data for conventional vehicles (CVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The navigation APIs, such Google Directions API, integrate traffic conditions and provide feasible alternative routes for origin-destination pairs. This paper develops two link-based fuel-consumption models stratified by link-level speed, road grade, and functional class (local/non-local), one for CVs and the other for HEVs. The link-based fuel-consumption models are built by assigning travel from a large number of GPS driving traces to the links in TomTom MultiNet as the underlying road network layer and road grade data from a U.S. Geological Survey elevation data set. Fuel consumption on a link is calculated by the proposed fuel consumption model. This paper envisions two kinds of applications: 1) identifying alternate routes that save fuel, and 2) quantifying the potential fuel savings for large amounts of travel. An experiment based on a large-scale California Household Travel Survey GPS trajectory data set is conducted. The fuel consumption and savings of CVs and HEVs are investigated. At the same time, the trade-off between fuel saving and time saving for choosing different routes is also examined for both powertrains.

Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports Johnson, C. 12/12/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2016 Curtin,S.; Gangi, J. 12/4/2017 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, D.C.

This report examines global fuel cell and hydrogen trends during 2016, covering business and financial activities, federal programs, and aspects of the various market sectors for fuel cells which include transportation. The report also covers 2016 activities related to hydrogen production, power-to-gas, energy storage, and components used by fuel cell and hydrogen technologies.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36 Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G. 12/1/2017 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2017 Bourbon, E. 11/29/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2017 and October 16, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 23 cents from $2.26 to $2.49; diesel increased 29 cents from $2.47 to $2.76; CNG price increased 2 cents from $2.15 to $2.17; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $1.99 to $2.10; propane decreased 6 cents from $2.84 to $2.78; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 19 cents from 2.49 to $2.68.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.32 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.24 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017 Eudy, L.; Post, M. 11/21/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. These data and analyses help provide needed information to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2017 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2016 through July 2017. The primary results presented in the report are from five demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; AFCB Project at the University of California at Irvine; AFCB Project at Orange County Transportation Authority; and AFCB Project at Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 11/14/2017 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Utility Investment in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Key Regulatory Considerations Allen, P.; Van Horn, G.; Goetz, M.; Bradbury, J.; Zyla, K. 11/13/2017 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, LLC, Concord, Massachusetts; Georgetown Climate Center, Washington, D.C.

The report provides an overview of the accelerating electrification of the transportation sector and explores the role of state utility regulators in evaluating potential investments by electric utilities in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. The report identifies key considerations for regulators, including the amount of charging infrastructure needed to support PEVs, ways that regulators can help ensure equitable access to charging infrastructure, and opportunities to maximize the benefits of utility investment in charging infrastructure.

The Barriers to Acceptance of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: 2017 Update Singer, M. 11/9/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the previous version published in December 2016, details findings from a study in February 2017 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J. 10/17/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

Enabling Fast Charging - Introduction and Overview Michelbacher, C.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham. A.; Carlson, B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A. Mohanpurkar, M.; Pesaran, A.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Tanim, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Zhang, J. 10/13/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with guidance from VTO, initiated this study to understand the technical, cost, infrastructure, and implementation barriers associated with high rate charging up to 350 kW.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 214-215) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - A Battery Technology Gap Assessment Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Jansen, A.N.; Tanim, T.; Dufek, E.J.; Pesaran, A.; Burnham, A.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Hardy, K.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Michelbacher, C.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Nelson, P.A.; Robertson, D.C.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Zhang. J. 10/13/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 250-262) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Vehicle Considerations Meintz, A.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Kreutzer, C.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Francfort, J.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Markel, A.; Michelbacher, C.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Pesaran, A.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Tanim, T. 10/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 216-227) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Battery Thermal Considerations Keyser, M.; Pesaran, A.; Li, Q.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Dufek, E.; Shirk, M.; Meintz, A.; Kreuzer, C.; Michelbacher, C.; Burnham, A.; Stephens, T.; Francfort, J.; Carlson, B.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Hardy, K.; Dias, F.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D. Jansen, A.N.; Tanim, T.; Anthony Markel. A. 10/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 228-236) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Infrastructure and Economic Considerations Burnham, A.; Dufek, E.J.; Stephens, T.; Francfort, J.; Michelbacher, C.; Carlson, R.B.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Dias, F.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Hardy, K.; Shirk, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Tanim, T.R. 10/10/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. extreme fast charging (XFC); electric vehicle infrastructure; battery electric vehicles; demand charges; total cost of ownership, economicsIn so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 237-249) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

From Gas to Grid: Building Charging Infrastructure to Power Electric Vehicle Demand Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 10/3/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

This report identifies the key hurdles that have inhibited the growth of charging infrastructure, and explains how they might be overcome, along with the best practices for siting chargers and designing electricity tariffs for EV charging stations.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Rocky Mountain Institute website.

Enabling Fast Charging: A Technology Gap Assessment Howell, D.; Boyd, S.; Cunningham, B.; Gillard, S.; Slezak, L.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Nelson, P.A.; Robertson, D.C.; Stephens, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Michelbacher, C.J.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Tanim, T.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Li, O.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Zhang, J. 10/1/2017 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In this report, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory teamed with Argonne National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to identify technical gaps to implementing an extreme fast charging network in the United States. This report highlights technical gaps at the battery, vehicle, and infrastructure levels.

Biodiesel Basics 9/29/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

Characterization of PTO and Idle Behavior for Utility Vehicles Konan, A.; Duran, A.; Kelly, K.; Miller, E.; Prohaska, R. 9/28/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboraatory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents the results of analyses performed on utility vehicle data composed primarily of aerial lift bucket trucks sampled from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to characterize power takeoff (PTO) and idle operating behavior for utility trucks. Two major data sources were examined in this study: a 75-vehicle sample of Odyne electric PTO (ePTO)-equipped vehicles drawn from multiple fleets spread across the United States and 10 conventional PTO-equipped Pacific Gas and Electric fleet vehicles operating in California. Novel data mining approaches were developed to identify PTO and idle operating states for each of the datasets using telematics and controller area network/onboard diagnostics data channels. These methods were applied to the individual datasets and aggregated to develop utilization curves and distributions describing PTO and idle behavior in both absolute and relative operating terms. This report also includes background information on the source vehicles, development of the analysis methodology, and conclusions regarding the study's findings.

Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Handbook Kelly, K.; Melendez, M.; Gonzales, J.; Lynch, L.; Boale, B.; Kohout, J. 9/28/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Gladstein, Neandross & Associates, Santa Monica, California

To ensure the safety of personnel and facilities, vehicle maintenance facilities are required by law and by guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the International Fire Code (IFC) to exhibit certain design features. They are also required to be fitted with certain fire protection equipment and devices because of the potential for fire or explosion in the event of fuel leakage or spills. All fuels have an explosion or fire potential if specific conditions are present.</p><p>This handbook covers the primary elements that must be considered when developing a CNG vehicle maintenance facility design that will protect against the ignition of natural gas releases. It also discusses specific protocols and training needed to ensure safety.

Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects Kelly, K.; Singer, M. 9/27/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

The Development of Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycles and Segmentation Duran, A.; Phillips, C.; Konan, A.; Kelly, K. 9/12/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Under a collaborative interagency agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a series of in-depth analyses to characterize the on-road driving behavior including distributions of vehicle speed, idle time, accelerations and decelerations, and other driving metrics of medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicles operating within the United States. As part of this effort, NREL researchers segmented U.S. medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicle driving characteristics into three distinct operating groups or clusters using real world drive cycle data collected at 1 Hz and stored in NREL's Fleet DNA database. The Fleet DNA database contains millions of miles of historical real-world drive cycle data captured from medium- and heavy vehicles operating across the United States. The data encompass data from existing DOE activities as well as contributions from valued industry stakeholder participants. For this project, data captured from 913 unique vehicles comprising 16,250 days of operation were drawn from the Fleet DNA database and examined. The Fleet DNA data used as a source for this analysis has been collected from a total of 30 unique fleets/data providers operating across 22 unique geographic locations spread across the United States. This includes locations with topology ranging from the foothills of Denver, Colorado, to the flats of Miami, Florida. The range of fleets, geographic locations, and total number of vehicles analyzed ensures results that include the influence of these factors. While no analysis will be perfect without unlimited resources and data, it is the researchers understanding that the Fleet DNA database is the largest and most thorough publicly accessible vocational vehicle usage database currently in operation. This report includes an introduction to the Fleet DNA database and the data contained within, a presentation of the results of the statistical analysis performed by NREL, review of the logistic model developed to predict cluster membership, and a discussion and detailed summary of the development of the vocational drive cycle weights and representative transient drive cycles for testing and simulation. Additional discussion of known limitations and potential future work are also included in the report content.

Electric-Drive Vehicles 9/11/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2017 Bourbon, E. 9/5/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2017 and July 17, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 12 cents from $2.38 to $2.26; diesel decreased 8 cents from $2.55 to $2.47; CNG price is unchanged at $2.15; ethanol (E85) decreased 12 cents from $2.11 to $1.99; propane increased 1 cent from $2.83 to $2.84; and biodiesel (B20) is unchanged at 2.49.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.11 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.32 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Melaina, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

Transportation Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Technology and Market Assessment Birky, A.K.; Laughlin, M.; Tartaglia, K.; Price, R.; Lin, Z. 9/1/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oakridge, Tennessee

This report focuses on electrification of government, commercial, and industrial fleets and provides the background necessary to understand the potential for electrification in these markets. Specifically, it covers the challenges and opportunities for electrification in the service and goods and people movement fleets to guide policy makers and researchers in identifying where federal investment in electrification could be most beneficial.

Sustainable Transportation Program 2016 Annual Report 8/24/2017 Reports

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

The efficiency and security of the transportation system affect us all - from the time and energy spent on our daily commutes to the availability of goods in our local stores. Also impacted are our pocketbooks, both as individuals and as a nation.</p><p>Transportation accounts for about 70% of national petroleum use, with Americans spending more than $177 billion to import oil in 2015. That same year, oil dependence cost the US $29 billion in lost potential GDP. Creating transportation technologies that reduce dependence on foreign oil; boost America's economy; improve national energy security; and deliver to consumers affordable, environmentally friendly choices is of critical importance. </p><p>ORNL's Sustainable Transportation Program (STP) works with government and industry to develop scientific knowledge and new technologies that accelerate the deployment of energy-efficient vehicles and intelligent, secure, and accessible transportation systems.</p><p>Scientists are tackling complex challenges in transportation using comprehensive capabilities at ORNL's National Transportation Research Center and the laboratory's signature strengths in high-performance computing, neutron sciences, materials science, and advanced manufacturing. Research focuses on electrification, efficiency of combustion and emissions, data science and automated vehicles, and materials for future systems.

2017 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 8/11/2017 Reports

California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the State's decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Fuel Consumption Sensitivity of Conventional and Hybrid Electric Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles to Driving Style Thomas, J.; Huff, S.; West, B.; and Chambon, P. 8/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation. The vehicle energy model focused on the limitations of regenerative braking in combination with varying levels of driving-style aggressiveness to show that this could account for greater FE variation in an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle. A closely matched pair of gasoline-fueled sedans, one an HEV and the other having a conventional powertrain, was chosen for both modeling and chassis dynamometer experimental comparisons. Results indicate that the regenerative braking limitations could be a main contributor to the greater HEV FE variation under the range of drive cycles considered. The complete body of results gives insight into the range of fuel use penalties that results from aggressive driving and why the variation can be larger on a percent basis for an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle, while the absolute fuel use penalty for aggressive driving is generally larger for conventional vehicles than HEVs.

Cow Power: A Case Study of Renewable Compressed Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel Tomich, M.; Mintz, M. 8/1/2017 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This case study explores the production and use of R-CNG--derived from dairy farm manure--to fuel heavy-duty milk tanker trucks operating in Indiana, Michigan, Tennessee, and Kentucky. It describes the joint endeavor of Fair Oaks Farms, an Indiana-based large dairy cooperative, and ampCNG, a provider of natural gas refueling infrastructure.

Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel Tomich, M.; Mintz, M. 8/1/2017 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This case study examines the production and use of R-CNG--derived from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste--to fuel heavy-duty refuse trucks and other natural gas vehicles in Sacramento, California. It highlights the joint endeavor of Atlas Disposal Industries, a waste management and recycling services company, and CleanWorld, a technology provider specializing in anaerobic digesters.

Economics of Idling Reduction Options for Long-Haul Trucks Gaines, L. 8/1/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This fact sheet summarizes a study that evaluated the costs and return on investment for idling reduction equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space equipment owners.

Case Study Summary - Idle Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles Gaines, L. 7/1/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This fact sheet summarizes the findings in a study that investigated the adoption of idling reduction technologies by nine emergency-vehicle fleets, including police, ambulance, and fire engines and trucks.

Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 6/30/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

2016 Vehicle Technologies Market Report Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G.; Moore, S. 6/23/2017 Reports

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The 2016 Vehicle Technologies Market Report is the eighth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies.

Considerations for Corridor and Community DC Fast Charging Complex System Design Francfort, J.; Salisbury, S.; Smart, J.; Garetson, T.; Karner, D. 6/15/2017 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls Idaho; Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona

This report focuses on direct current fast charger (DCFC) systems and how they can be deployed to provide convenient charging for plug-in electric vehicle drivers. First, the report shares lessons learned from previous DCFC deployment and data collection activities. Second, it establishes considerations and criteria for designing and upgrading DCFC complexes. Third, it provides cost estimates for hypothetical high-power DCFC complexes that meet simplified design requirements. Finally, it presents results for a business case analysis that shed light on the financial challenges associated with DCFCs.

New Technology Adoption Curves - A Case Study on Delivering E25-Capable Vehicles to Market Abuelsamid, S.; Shepard, S. 6/12/2017 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

This report is a case study exploring the time it would take a new technology to reach 20% vehicle market share (the percentage of market penetration we believe sufficient to satisfy consumer demand). The case study evaluates how many vehicles equipped to operate on E25 must be sold each year to achieve a 20% share of vehicles on the road by a certain moment in time. The case study serves as an example of what will be required to achieve significant market penetration for any new technology.

Notes: This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Flex Fuels website.

Challenges and Opportunities of Grid Modernization and Electric Transportation Graham, R.L.; Francis, J.; Bogacz, R.J. 6/1/2017 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Allegheny Science & Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

This white paper addresses the importance of the interaction between transportation electrification and the electric power grid. Grid investments that support plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) deployments as a part of planned modernization efforts can enable a more efficient and cost-effective transition to electric transportation and allow investor-owned electric companies and public power companies to realize new revenue resources in times of flat or declining loads. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with an increase in PEV adoption and how working together both sectors stand to benefit from closer integration.

American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report Eudy, L.; Post, M.; Jeffers, M. 5/22/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/22/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary results from a fleet of 3 BEBs operated by King County Metro in Seattle, Washington.

Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston Eudy, L. 5/22/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

Autonomy-Enabled Fuel Savings for Military Vehicles: Report on 2016 Aberdeen Test Center Testing Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Gonder, J. 5/18/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Fuel savings have never been the primary focus for autonomy-enabled military vehicles. However, studies have estimated that autonomy in passenger and commercial vehicles could improve fuel economy by as much as 22%-33% over various drive cycles. If even a fraction of this saving could be realized in military vehicles, significant cost savings could be realized each year through reduced fuel transport missions, reduced fuel purchases, less maintenance, fewer required personnel, and increased vehicle range. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory installed advanced data logging equipment and instrumentation on two autonomy-enabled convoy vehicles configured with Lockheed Martin's Autonomous Mobility Applique System to determine system performance and improve on the overall vehicle control strategies of the vehicles. Initial test results from testing conducted at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds are included in this report. Lessons learned from in-use testing and performance results have been provided to the project partners for continued system refinement.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2017 Bourbon, E. 5/17/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2017 and April 17, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 6 cents from $2.32 to $2.38; diesel decreased 3 cents from $2.58 to $2.55; CNG price increased 4 cents from $2.11 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 7 cents from $2.04 to $2.11; propane increased 3 cents from $2.80 to $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 8 cents from $2.57 to 2.49.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.23 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.36 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Guideline for Determining the Modifications Required for Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facilities Bowerson, D. 5/17/2017 Reports

NGVAmerica, Washington, DC

The growth of natural gas vehicle (NGV) fleets in recent years has increased the need for additional gaseous fuel maintenance facilities across the country. The guidelines describe the modifications necessary for existing liquid fuel maintenance facilities to service compressed and liquefied NGVs. Additionally, the document outlines the basic national codes and the rationale and assumptions used to develop these codes.

The Business Case for Fuel Cells: Delivering Sustainable Value Curtin, S.; Gangi, J. 4/25/2017 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Walshington, D.C.

The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016.

2017 Propane Market Outlook: Current Market Conditions and the Outlook Through 2025 Sloan, M. 4/24/2017 Presentations

ICF, Fairfax, Virginia

This presentation was given at the North American Propane Gas Association EXPO in Nashville, Tennessee, in April 2017. It presents the views of ICF and includes forward-looking statements and projections. ICF has made every reasonable effort to ensure that the information and assumptions on which these statements and projections are based are current, reasonable, and complete. However, a variety of factors could cause actual market results to differ materially from the projections, anticipated results, or other expectations.

Implementing Workplace Charging within Federal Agencies Smith, M. 4/19/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland

This case study, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office, draws from available information and lessons learned from federal agencies that have piloted plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) workplace charging programs. It can be challenging for organizations to involve all the key stakeholders needed to develop a charging program, but engaging them at an early stage can simplify the process of setting an adequate plan for the workplace. Key stakeholders may include workplace charging managers, facilities managers, parking managers, employee PEV drivers, legal counsel, employee benefits managers, and union representatives.</p><p>Multiple PEV charging stations are available on the GSA schedule. Agencies will need to select the charging station type and design that is most appropriate for each specific worksite - Level 1, Level 2, or DC Fast Charging. In addition, the GSA Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) can help reduce upfront costs, which will help keep the reimbursement fees within the threshold of what employees are willing to pay.

Model Year 2017: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 4/18/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

EVgo Fleet and Tariff Analysis; Phase I: California Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 4/4/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Louisville, Colorado

Public direct current (DC) fast chargers are anticipated to play an important role in accelerating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and mitigating emissions. This project analyzed charging session data in 2016 from all 230 EVgo DCFC stations in California to determine the key factors that contribute to the electricity costs and alternatives that may be available to reduce those costs, and to provide guidance for future rate design discussions.

Work Truck Idling Reduction 3/9/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

Hydrogen Storage 3/7/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

This fact sheet, produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, describes hydrogen storage, including near-term hydrogen storage solutions and research needs and long-term research directions.

Gas-Saving Tips 2/28/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

This fact sheet for consumers describes a few simple tips to help obtain the best possible fuel economy from vehicles and to reduce fuel costs.

2015 Bioenergy Market Report Warner. E.; Moriarty, K.; Lewis, J.; Milbrandt, A.; Schwab, A. 2/27/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2017 Bourbon, E. 2/27/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2017 and January 15, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 10 cents from $2.22 to $2.32; diesel increased 10 cents from $2.48 to $2.58; CNG price increased 5 cents from $2.06 to $2.11; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $1.93 to $2.04; propane increased 12 cents from $2.68 to $2.80; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 11 cents from $2.46 to 2.57.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.21 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Building Partnerships | Growing Markets; 2017 Ethanol Industry Outlook 2/17/2017 Reports

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

RFA's Ethanol Industry Outlook is a catalog of important statistics for America's ethanol industry, providing the most up-to-date graphs, charts and facts about the production and use of fuel ethanol.

Notes: This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Renewable Fuels Association website.

Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement Clinton, B.; Johnson, C.; Moriarty, K.; Newes, E.; Vimmerstedt, L. 2/10/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado

Anecdotal evidence suggests retail E85 prices may track retail gasoline prices rather than wholesale costs. This indicates E85 prices may be higher than they would be if priced on a cost basis hence limiting adoption by some price-sensitive consumers. Using publicly available and proprietary E85 and regular gasoline price data, we examine pricing behavior in the market for E85. Specifically, we assess the extent to which local retail competition in E85 markets decreases E85 retail prices. Results of econometric analysis suggest that higher levels of retail competition (measured in terms of station density) are associated with lower E85 prices at the pump. While more precise causal estimates may be produced from more comprehensive data, this study is the first to our knowledge that estimates the spatial competition dimension of E85 pricing behavior by firms. This technical report elaborates on a related presentation.

2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers Warner, E.; Schwab, A.; Bacovsky, D. 2/8/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Wieselburg, Austria

In order to understand the anticipated status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2015, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated its annual survey of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this survey update, describes the survey methodology, and documents important changes since the 2015 survey published at the end of 2015

Battery Electric Buses - State of the Practice Hanlin, J.; Reddaway, D.; Lane, J. 1/26/2017 Books & Chapters

Transportation Research Board Transit Cooperative Research Programs, Washington, D.C.

This synthesis report documents current practices of transit systems for deploying battery electric buses, including planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, and operations and maintenance. The report is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. It is also valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.

Notes:

This copyrighted National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine publication can be downloaded from the National Academies Press website.

On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Jehlik, F. 1/23/2017 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

National Idling Reduction Network News 1/16/2017 Newsletters

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This monthly web publication covers news and developments in the heavy-duty truck idling reduction industry. The link takes you to the current newsletter and has a link to archived issues.