Propane Fuel Basics
Also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or propane autogas, propane is a clean-burning, high-energy alternative fuel that's been used for decades to power light-, medium- and heavy-duty propane vehicles.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane gas (C3H8). It is stored under pressure inside a tank and is a colorless, odorless liquid. As pressure is released, the liquid propane vaporizes and turns into gas that is used in combustion. An odorant, ethyl mercaptan, is added for leak detection. (See fuel properties.)
Propane has a high octane rating, making it an excellent choice for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It presents no threat to soil, surface water, or groundwater. Propane is produced as a by-product of natural gas processing and crude oil refining. It accounts for about 2% of the energy used in the United States. Of that, less than 2% is used for transportation fuel. Its main uses include home and water heating, cooking and refrigerating food, clothes drying, powering farm and industrial equipment. Rural areas without natural gas service commonly rely on propane as a residential energy source. The chemical industry uses propane as a raw material for making plastics and other compounds.
Propane as an Alternative Fuel
Interest in propane as an alternative transportation fuel stems mainly from its domestic availability, high-energy density, clean-burning qualities, and its relatively low cost. It is the world's third most common transportation fuel and is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
Propane autogas is specified as HD-5 propane and is a mixture of propane with smaller amounts of other gases. According to the Gas Processors Association's HD-5 specification for propane, it must consist of at least 90% propane, no more than 5% propylene, and 5% other gases, primarily butane and butylene. (See fuel properties.)
Propane is stored onboard a vehicle in a tank pressurized to about 150 pounds per square inch—about twice the pressure of an inflated truck tire. Under this pressure, propane becomes a liquid with an energy density 270 times greater than the gaseous form. Propane has a higher octane rating than gasoline, which prevents engine knock. However, it has a lower Btu rating than gasoline, so it takes more fuel to drive the same distance. Propane's clean burning characteristics allow the engine to have increased service life.