Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 11/3/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C., Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment 10/10/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Clean Cities Overview and Contacts 8/15/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program with contact information for Clean Cities program staff and for the coordinators of the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

Clean Cities Overview: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 8/15/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 Davis, S.C.; Diegel, S.W.; Boundy, R.G. 7/31/2014 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data).

Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles 5/20/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

EPAct Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 3/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

2014 Future of Fuels: An Analysis of Government Projections through 2040 2/7/2014 Reports

NACS, Alexandria, Virginia

This report is an evaluation of the U.S. Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook 2014.

Notes: This publication is copyrighted by the NACS and is accessed at http://www.nacsonline.com.

A Guide to the Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities Community Electric Vehicle Readiness Projects Matt Frades 1/1/2014 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions

This report summarizes the activities, outputs, and lessons of a series of projects that are intended to advance the deployment of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) that was launched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2011.

Alternative Fuel Vehicle & Fueling Infrastructure Deployment Barriers & the Potential Role of Private Sector Financial Solutions Dougherty, S., Nigro, N. 12/31/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This paper examines how private financing can address the barriers to demand facing electric, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their related fueling infrastructure. Starting with a review of the state of the market, it covers significant barriers to market demand and barriers for private investors and concludes with a review of innovative finance options used in other sectors that could be applied to the alternative fuel vehicle market.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/1/2013 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

A Roadmap to Climate-Friendly Cars: 2013 Yawitz, D.; Kenward, A.; Larson, D. 9/1/2013 Reports

Climate Central, Princeton, New Jersey

An electric car is only as good for the climate as the electricity used to power it. And in states that rely heavily on fossil fuels like coal and natural gas for their electricity there are many conventional and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles that are better for the climate than all-electric cars today.</p><p>But that is just part of the story. Another critical factor is the carbon emissions generated when a car is manufactured. Emissions from producing the battery and other electrical components create a 10,000 to 40,000-pound carbon debt for electric cars that can only be overcome after tens, or even hundreds of thousands of miles of driving and recharging from clean energy sources.</p><p>This comprehensive state-by-state analysis of the climate impacts of the electric car, plug-in hybrid electrics, and high-mileage, gas-powered hybrid cars takes both of these factors into account - the source of energy used to power the car and carbon emissions from vehicle manufacturing.

Best Practices for Workplace Charging 9/1/2013 Reports

CALSTART, Pasadena, California

This document is a resource for employers and employees interested in launching a workplace charging program at their place of business.

Notes: This publication is copyrighted by Calstart and is accessed at on the Calstart publications page.

Workplace Charging Challenge 9/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Fact sheet about the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge which is to increase the number of American employers offering workplace charging by tenfold in the next five years.

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Light-Duty Vehicle and Fuel Pathways: A Synthesis of Recent Research Nigro, N., Jiang, S. 7/19/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

Transitioning to a cleaner fleet of advanced vehicles powered by electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels or petroleum products can yield a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum consumption. A meaningful assessment of the comparative merits of these alternate fuel pathways requires a solid understanding of their technological potential to reduce emissions. Available studies evaluating full lifecycle emissions rely on various assumptions of that potential and yield a wide range of results. This brief summarizes and synthesizes the results of several recent studies and presents the full range of greenhouse gas emission estimates for each type of advanced vehicle and fuel. It also explains the reasons these estimates vary so widely and identifies opportunities for future analyses that use a consistent set of scenarios with transparent assumptions in order to compare the greenhouse gas impacts of fuel and vehicle pathways.

Project Insights: Real-World Charging Behavior at the Workplace 7/1/2013 Reports

Advanced Energy, Raleigh, North Carolina

Advanced Energy's Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Consumer Usage study began in January 2012. This study takes an in-depth look at the consumer driving and vehicle charging trends of 40 all-electric vehicle drivers in the Research Triangle Park, N.C. area over two years to document and evaluate general characteristics and usage trends for the electric vehicle consumer market. The purpose of this study is to identify potential barriers to widespread adoption of PEVs and the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) infrastructure that supports them and evaluates the impact of external events, such as changes in infrastructure availability, duration of vehicle ownership and seasonal temperature variances.</p><p>Each Advanced Energy's Project Insights report addresses one specific market variable and identifies and explores opportunities to overcome the associated adoption barriers. This report focuses on Workplace Charging availability and how it may influence PEV driving and vehicle charging behavior.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

What is the GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator was developed to use the GREET system to help fleets choose the alternative fuel vehicles that will best meet a variety of organizational transportation goals and legal requirements, including reducing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios. Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W. 4/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

U.S. DRIVE 2012 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 3/1/2013 Reports

U.S. DRIVE Partners

U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary government-industry partnership focused on precompetitive, advanced automotive and related infrastructure technology research and development (R&D). Partners are the United States Department of Energy (DOE); the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR)--a consortium composed of Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors; Tesla Motors, Inc.; five energy companies--BP America, Chevron Corporation, Phillips 66 Company, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two electric utilities--DTE Energy and Southern California Edison; and the Electric Power Research Institute.</p><p>By providing a framework for frequent and regular interaction among technical experts in common areas of expertise, the Partnership accelerates technical progress, helps to avoid duplication of efforts, ensures that publicly funded research delivers high-value results, and overcomes high-risk barriers to technology commercialization.</p><p>U.S. DRIVE partners selected the technical highlights contained in this document from hundreds of DOE-funded projects conducted by some of the nation's top scientists and engineers. Each one-page summary represents what DOE and automotive, energy, and utility industry partners collectively consider to be significant progress in the development of advanced automotive and infrastructure technologies.

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels 1/1/2013 Books & Chapters

Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs) operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns over petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. This report assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80% across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. It examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, effective, and sustained but adaptive policies such as research and development (R&D), subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers such as cost and consumer choice.

Notes: This book is available for purchase from The National Academies Press.

Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment: Interim Report (2013) 1/1/2013 Reports

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC

This interim report by the Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment, was commissioned by the Department of Energy at the request of Congress to address market barriers to adoption of electric vehicles. The report focuses on near-term options, and specifically addresses infrastructure needs for electric vehicles; barriers to deploying the infrastructure; and possible roles of the federal government in overcoming the barriers. It also begins an initial discussion of the pros and cons of the possible roles.

Notes: This document is copyrighted by The National Academies Press. It can be located on their website

Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles, Preprint Melaina, M. Bremson, J., Solo, K 1/1/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of California Davis, Davis, California; Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado

The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

Notes: Presented at the 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference, Austin, Texas, November 4-7, 2012

Be Part of the Solution - EV Information for Employers 12/17/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Transportation and Climate Initiative, Washington, D.C.

The Transportation & Climate Initiative (TCI) is a regional collaboration of 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic jurisdictions that seeks to develop the clean energy economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. TCI has developed a suite of documents to help communities become EV-ready as part of its Northeast Electric Vehicle Network project. This guidance document discusses the benefits of installing charging stations, why workplace charging is important and how to make workplace charging available.

Be Part of the Solution - EV Information for Local Governments 12/17/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Transportation and Climate Initiative, Washington, D.C.

The Transportation & Climate Initiative (TCI) is a regional collaboration of 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic jurisdictions that seeks to develop the clean energy economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. TCI has developed a suite of documents to help communities become EV-ready as part of its Northeast Electric Vehicle Network project. This guidance document offer recommendations for local governments to promote EVs and examples of actions being implemented in the northeast states.

Be Part of the Solution - EV Information for Multi-Unit Housing 12/17/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Transportation and Climate Initiative, Washington, D.C.

The Transportation & Climate Initiative (TCI) is a regional collaboration of 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic jurisdictions that seeks to develop the clean energy economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. TCI has developed a suite of documents to help communities become EV-ready as part of its Northeast Electric Vehicle Network project. This guidance document discusses the options for homeowners associations, developers, building managers and property owners and steps for installing and using EV charging stations in multi-unit housing.

Be Part of the Solution - EV Information for Utilities 12/17/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Transportation and Climate Initiative, Washington, D.C.

The Transportation & Climate Initiative (TCI) is a regional collaboration of 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic jurisdictions that seeks to develop the clean energy economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. TCI has developed a suite of documents to help communities become EV-ready as part of its Northeast Electric Vehicle Network project. This guidance document discusses resources to help electric utility companies prepare for the increase in electricity demand and the issues they will face by wide-scale adoption of EVs.

Model Year 2013: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 12/13/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG vehicles.

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

The Car of the Future, Today Turchetta, D. 11/1/2012 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) have the potential to be a cleaner, more sustainable option for personal travel than conventional vehicles. But market penetration will take time.</p><p>Over the next few years, nearly all major automakers plan to put PEVs on the road. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates PEV production levels to be more than 1.2 million total through 2015. However, actual production and market penetration depend on many variables, including improvements in PEV battery technology, vehicle cost, the price of conventional fuels, and consumer behavior. This article discusses these challenges and what is being done at the Federal and State levels to overcome them.

Notes: This article appears in the Federal Highway Administration's bimonthly magazine: Public Roads, November/December 2012, Vol. 76, No. 3

Harmonization of Road Signs for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations 11/1/2012 Reports

Clean Fuels Consulting, Washington, D.C.

This report details the state-of-play for international road signage for EVs, including the background and status of the creation of international on-road signage for electric vehicle charging stations at the United Nations where international legal recognition of signage is regulated.

Siting and Design Guidelines for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment 11/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

WXY Architecture + Urban Design, New York, New York

The purpose of these design guidelines is to identify and diagram key siting and design issues that are relevant to local governments as well as developers, homeowners, businesses, utility providers and other organizations interested in best practices for EVSE implementation.

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 10/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Transit on the Cutting Edge of Clean Technology 9/1/2012 Reports

American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC

This white paper reviews the substantial progress that transit agencies have made in investing in innovative clean technologies and fuels, such as electricity, hybrid vehicles, electric storage, biofuels, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cells.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No. 2 9/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Deployment in the Northeast; A Market Overview and Literature Review Zhu, C.; Nigro, N. 9/1/2012 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions; Arlington, Virginia

Electric vehicles have the potential to decrease our nation's dependence on oil and drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. In an effort to stimulate economic growth, decrease the United States' dependence on oil, and lessen the operating cost of personal transportation, the federal government issued a final rule in 2012 requiring new cars to average 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. This goal is ambitious and will be difficult to accomplish without significant numbers of alternative fuel vehicles. Several alternative fuels are currently available, but electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as the predominant alternative for passenger vehicles. While EVs are hitting the market and offer numerous advantages, such as zero tailpipe emissions, lower fuel costs, and the convenience of filling up at home, a number of barriers stand in the way of wide-scale EV deployment.</p><p>This literature review, prepared by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, provides an overview of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) deployment in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. The report assesses current electric vehicle and electric vehicle charging station technology, looks at the state of PEV markets, reviews the benefits of PEV deployment, and identifies the barriers and challenges to PEVs in gaining market acceptance. The literature review is intended to serve as a resource for consumers and policy makers who seek to better understand the nature of electric vehicle deployment in this region and related challenges.

Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report. Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P. 8/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Owner Survey 8/1/2012 Reports

California Center for Sustainable Energy & California Air Resources Board

In the first half of 2012, the California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE), in coordination with the California Air Resources Board (ARB), conducted the largest plug-in electric vehicle owner survey in the state's history. Reaching out to more than 2,500 California plug-in electric vehicle owners, CCSE received data from 1,419 unique respondents who provided information on vehicle use, charging behavior, access to public and residential charging infrastructure, fueling costs and household demographics. The data collected by CCSE, in support of the state's Clean Vehicle Rebate Project highlights California's commitment to promoting clean transportation solutions that improve urban air quality, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and offer the state's consumers viable alternatives to conventional gasoline vehicles. The results of the statewide CCSE and ARB survey confirm the early market success as well as the considerable consumer and environmental benefits of electrified vehicles.

Streamlining the Permitting and Inspection Process for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Home Charger Installations 7/1/2012 Reports

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Collaborative

The process of planning and executing residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) or charging stations required coordination of many participants. The resulting cost, timing, and complexity are dependent on how each participant manages his or her own steps and how effectively they hand off the job to each other. This report seeks to characterize key aspects of the installation process as they relate to permitting and inspection considerations, highlighting common challenges and questions that arise. Through discussion, examples and recommendations, it also seeks to address a troubling trend: the permitting and inspection process for charging equipment is becoming more onerous in some jurisdictions over time. This paper provides recommendations and references so that practitioners can design streamlined procedures for permitting and inspection in their jurisdiction.

Site Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Mayfield, D. 7/1/2012 Reports

Sustainable Transportation Strategies, Portland, Oregon

Sustainable Transportation Strategies prepared this report to highlight best practices for designing electric vehicle (EV) charging stations - those parking spaces where EV supply equipment will be used to charge vehicles. Now that communities are ramping up with installations of EV supply equipment, designers are encountering a host of design issues that are generating creative solutions - and mistakes.</p><p>This report is intended to be used by persons who are responsible for safe and convenient design of EV charging stations. Many topics covered by this report are beyond the professional responsibility of electrical contractors. The report should be used alongside other resources, including those that cover electrical design standards for installation of EV supply equipment. </p><p>Site Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations addresses the kind of equipment available and how parking facility design offers both opportunities and challenges for charging station installations. Several design scenarios are illustrated.

Increasing Electric Vehicle Charging Access in Multi-Unit Dwellings in Los Angeles Balmin, J.; Bonett, G.; Kirkeby, M. 7/1/2012 Reports

UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs, UCLA Luskin Center for Innovation, Los Angeles, California

This report is a graduate student research project which aims to identify barriers, evaluate existing policies supporting home EV charging installations, and recommend policy options to address challenges to charging in multi-unit dwellings in the City of Los Angeles.

Annual Energy Outlook 2012; with Projections to 2035 6/1/2012 Reports

U.S. Energy Information Administration

The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (AEO2012) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2012 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2012 is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 29 alternative cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy. Many of the implications of the alternative cases are discussed in the "Issues in focus" section of this report.</p><p>Key results highlighted in AEO2012 include continued modest growth in demand for energy over the next 25 years and increased domestic crude oil and natural gas production, largely driven by rising production from tight oil and shale resources. As a result, U.S. reliance on imported oil is reduced; domestic production of natural gas exceeds consumption, allowing for net exports; a growing share of U.S. electric power generation is met with natural gas and renewables; and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions remain below their 2005 level from 2010 to 2035, even in the absence of new Federal policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Accessibility and Signage for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure 5/1/2012 Reports

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Collaborative

This report recommends accessibility standards for charging infrastructure installed as part of the new construction of facilities, and also standards for installations at existing facilities. The recommended standards distinguish between charging that is publicly available and charging that is restricted in access (e.g. residential). The report also recommends standardized general purpose signs to identify charging stations and direct users to the stations, and regulatory signs to designate the permissible uses of the charging facilities and to prohibit certain uses where necessary. All regulatory signs must be supported by appropriate rules, ordinances or policies.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No.1 5/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-iannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical Contractors 4/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colordao

This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, charging equipment installation, and training for electrical contractors.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts 4/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, and considerations for station owners, property owners, and station hosts.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers 4/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Thirty-Six Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans Lammert, M., Walkowicz, K. 3/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 36-month follow-up evaluation is part of a series of evaluations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Using an established and documented evaluation protocol, DOE - through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)- has been tracking and evaluating new propulsion systems in transit buses and trucks for more than 10 years. The DOE/NREL vehicle evaluations are a part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), which supports DOE's Vehicle Technologies Program.<p>This report focuses on a parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system currently being operated by United Parcel Service (UPS). The hybrid propulsion system is an alternative to the standard diesel system and allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately reduces petroleum use.

Electric Vehicle Charging for Persons with Disabilities Mayfield, D. 2/1/2012 Reports

Sustainable Transportation Strategies

Plug-in electric vehicles hold the promise of cutting petroleum use and improving air quality - including reducing greenhouse gas emissions. EVs also can efficiently use homegrown, renewable energy resources rather than depending on fuel imports from other nations. The next few years will be a critical period for installing publicly available EV charging stations to help foster this new technology.<p>As our nation develops a network of EV charging stations, we must include access for persons with disabilities and comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). ADA requires nondiscriminatory access to places that accommodate the general public. Commercial facilities that do not directly serve the public - like office facilities and warehouses - also must meet ADA requirements for new construction and alterations.

Life-Cycle Analysis of Shale Gas and Natural Gas Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. 12/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis Pathways with GREET Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Palou-Rivera, I.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.Q. 11/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel na

Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans 11/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans and is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a follow-up evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation.<p> This project is part of a series of evaluations performed by NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation Team for the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA).

Electric Vehicle Policies, Fleet, and Infrastructure: Synthesis Lindquist, K.; Lindquist, K.; Wendt, M. 11/1/2011 Reports

Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, Washington

Transportation Synthesis Reports (TSRs) are brief summaries of currently available information on topics of interest to WSDOT staff. Online and print sources may include newspaper and periodical articles, NCHRP and other TRB programs, AASHTO, the research and practices of other state DOTs and related academic and industry research. Internet hyperlinks in the TSRs are active at the time of publication, but host server changes can make them obsolete.

EV Project: Accessibility at Public EV Charging Locations 10/10/2011 Reports

ECOtality North America, Phoenix, Arizona

The EV Project studies electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The data gathered by the EV Project will be directly applicable to the experience of jumpstarting regional electric vehicle adoption. The EV project will help to identify potential barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles and the deployment of EVSE to support them. Federal accessibility standards do not explicitly address electric vehicle charging station. This document investigates the best practices in incorporating ADA accessibility requirements in the design plans of publically accessible EVSE.

Notes: This document is copyrighted by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. No part of the contents of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the express written permission of Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 15, No. 2 10/1/2011 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now features news and articles about Clean Cities coalition activities in promoting the reduction in the use of petroleum transportation fuel. The October 2011 issue features stories about idle reduction equipment benefits, coordinator profiles, the 2011 Clean Cities Stakeholder Summit and other coalition news.

Model Year 2012 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG vehicles.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers 9/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

PEVs are back and ready to compete with-and complement-the ubiquitous ICE technology. First, advances in electric-drive technologies enabled commercialization of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which integrate an ICE or other type of propulsion source with batteries, regenerative braking, and an electric motor to boost fuel economy. Continued technological advances have spawned plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), which integrate small ICEs (or other types of propulsion sources) and large, grid-chargeable batteries that enable 10- to 40-mile all-electric driving ranges. Advanced technologies have also created a new breed of EVs that don't use an ICE at all. Only a few models of new-generation PEVs are available today, but, because of the benefits they offer, their market penetration and availability are growing quickly.

Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers Shea, S. 9/1/2011 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

Many niche market fleets, which operate specially designed vehicles that serve very specific functions, are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. One prime example is the refuse hauler sector, whose 136,000 trucks average only 2.8 miles per gallon, using more than 1.2 billion gallons of fuel annually in the United States. This sector could substantially decrease its petroleum consumption through the use of alternative fuel or advanced technology vehicles. Before adopting these technologies, a refuse hauler fleet should consider both the technologies' benefits and the fleet's individual needs.

U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan Johnson, C. 9/1/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 60% by 2025 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Ground-based transportation is responsible for 40% of USVI petroleum use, so the USVI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) set up a Transportation working group (TWG) to devise a way to meet the 60% reduction goal in the transportation sector. This report lays out the TWG's plan.

Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 5/1/2011

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels?electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. </p><p>The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. </p><p>The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

Advancing Renewable Energy 5/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Agriculture

This brochure provides an overview of USDA's energy related programs and how USDA collaboration efforts are making a measurable impact in the world of renewable energy.

Project Results: Evaluating FedEx Express Hybrid-Electric Delivery Trucks 4/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of three Class 4 gasoline hybrid-electric delivery trucks and three comparable conventional diesel trucks operated by FedEx Express in Southern California. In addition, the tailpipe emissions and fuel economy of one of the gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles (gHEVs) and one diesel truck were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The gHEVs were equipped with a parallel hybrid system manufactured by Azure Dynamics, including a 100-kW alternating current induction motor, regenerative braking, and a 2.45-kWh nickel metal hydride battery pack. This fact sheet summarizes the results of the evaluation of the gHEVs.

Project Results: Evaluating FedEx Express Hybrid-Electric Delivery Trucks National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 4/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of three Class 4 gasoline hybrid-electric delivery trucks and three comparable conventional diesel trucks operated by FedEx Express in Southern California. In addition, the tailpipe emissions and fuel economy of one of the gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles (gHEVs) and one diesel truck were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The gHEVs were equipped with a parallel hybrid system manufactured by Azure Dynamics, including a 100-kW alternating current induction motor, regenerative braking, and a 2.45-kWh nickel-metal-hydride battery pack. This fact sheet summarizes the results of the evaluation of the gHEVs.<p> This project is part of a series of evaluations performed by NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation Team for the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA).

Clean Cities Now Vol. 15, No. 1 4/1/2011 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now features news and articles about Clean Cities coalition activities in promoting the reduction in the use of petroleum transportation fuel. The April 2011 issue features several stories about electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.

2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report Ward, J.; Davis, S.; Batten, B.; Diegel, S.; Duggal, V.; Duleep, K.; Smith, R.; Yeakel, S. 3/1/2011 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Project Startup: Evaluating Coca-Cola's Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Delivery Trucks 3/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Although the largest trucks-Class 8, with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 33,000 lb-make up only 1% of the U.S. highway vehicle fleet, they are responsible for almost 20% of highway petroleum consumption. Improving the efficiency of Class 8 trucks through strategies such as alternative fuels and hybridization is a high-impact way to reduce petroleum consumption and associated emissions.<p>The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is evaluating the 12-month, in-service performance of five Class 8 diesel hybrid-electric delivery trucks and five comparable conventional diesel trucks operated by Coca-Cola Refreshments in Miami/South Dade County, FL. In addition, the tailpipe emissions and fuel economies of one hybrid and one diesel truck have been evaluated on a chassis dynamometer at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory.<p>This project is part of a series of evaluations performed by NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation Team for the U.S.Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity(AVTA).

Project Startup: Evaluating Coca-Cola's Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Delivery Trucks 3/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Although the largest trucks?Class 8, with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 33,000 lb?make up only 1% of the U.S. highway vehicle fleet, they are responsible for almost 20% of highway petroleum consumption. Improving theefficiency of Class 8 trucks through strategies such as alternative fuels and hybridization is a high-impact way to reduce petroleum consumption and associated emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is evaluating the 12-month, in-service performance of five Class 8 diesel hybrid-electric delivery trucks and five comparable conventional diesel trucks operated by Coca-Cola Refreshments in Miami/South Dade County, Florida. In addition, the tailpipe emissions and fuel economies of one hybrid and one diesel truck have been evaluated on a chassis dynamometer at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory.

Plug-in Electric Vehicles: A Practical Plan for Progress 2/1/2011 Reports

Transport Electrification Panel, commissioned by the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, Indiana

This report examines public policies toward plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) including all electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). It examines the pros and cons of PEVs, recent improvements in battery technology, market dynamics, and the proliferation of policies around the world that promote the use of PEVs. The focus is primarily near term (i.e., 2011-25), recognizing that the transportation electrification process will evolve in stages based on lessons learned in the years ahead. The report represents the views of the Transport Electrification Panel (TEP), a group of experts from multiple disciplines and organizations commissioned by the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs.

Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Guidebook to available Model Year 2011 alternative fuel and advanced vehicles including electric, plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles as well as vehicles powered by natural gas, propane, ethanol and biodiesel.

FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report Barnitt, R. 1/1/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document presents the final results of a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx Express in and around Los Angeles, California. FedEx Express is a large commercial fleet that operates more than 30,000 motorized vehicles and has hybrid electric (diesel and gasoline) vehicles currently in service. FedEx Express has deployed 20 gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (gHEVs) on parcel delivery routes in the Sacramento and Los Angeles areas. These gHEVs (Figure 1) are built upon a Ford E-450 strip chassis, and each vehicle is powered by a Ford 5.4L gasoline engine and Azure Dynamics, Inc. (AZD) Balance Hybrid System. Additional vehicle information is discussed in subsequent sections, while the specifics of the hybrid system evaluated are presented in Table 1. FedEx Express was the domestic launch customer for the AZD Balance Hybrid electric product.

U.S. National Electric Vehicle Safety Standards Summit Grant, C.C. 11/1/2010 Reports

Fire Protection Research Foundation, Quincy, Massachusetts

Electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles are seeing resurgence on U.S. roadways. As new vehicles based on electrical power sources proliferate, questions exist as to how well the current codes and standards adequately address all the safety concerns relating to these new vehicles, their components, and the supporting technology in the built infrastructure.The U.S. National Electric Vehicle Safety Standards Summit was held on 21-22 October 2010 in Detroit Michigan to address safety related codes and standards issues. The purpose of the Summit was to develop the base elements for an action plan for the safe implementation of electric vehicles, and using safety standards as the primary mechanism for this action plan. Specifically, the objectives of the event were the following: identify the relevant fire and electrical safety codes, standards and specifications; identify gaps in these codes, standards and specifications; identify related gaps in research, training, or communications which stem from OEM safety manual development and deployment; and develop the base elements for an action plan for necessary standards development and associated deployment activities to fill these gaps.

Model Year 2011 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as one CNG vehicle.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 14, No. 2 9/1/2010 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now, a semi-annual publication, is a roundup of events and news about the Clean Cities Coalitions including the Plug-In Vehicle and Infrastructure Workshop (July 2010), propane conversions, and stories about successful applications of alternative fuels.

Identification and Review of State/Federal Legislative and Regulatory Changes Required for the Introduction of New Transportation Fuels 8/4/2010 Reports

Sierra Research Inc., Sacramento, California

Sierra Research has, at the request of the American Petroleum Institute, conducted an independent review of existing federal, state and other statutes, regulations, and requirements that must be changed and other significant implementation hurdles that must be overcome prior to the introduction of E15 and other new transportation fuels into commerce.

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Cleary, T.; McGill, R.; Sikes, K.; Hadley, S.; Marano, V.; Ungar, E.; Gross, T. 7/1/2010 Reports

Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland; Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland; Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research, Columbus, Ohio; Taratec Corporation, Columbus, Ohio;

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. The primary value of PHEVs to the consumer is their likelihood to markedly reduce fuel costs by substituting gasoline with electricity. However, PHEVs are expected to cost more to purchase than comparable internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential, long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of the PHEV Value Proposition Study (VPS) is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier.

Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Guide for Local Governments in Washington State Technical Advisory Committee 7/1/2010 Reports

Washington State Department of Commerce, Olympia, Washington; Puget Sound Regional Council, Seattle, Washington

In 2009 the Washington State Legislature enacted a new law designed to encourage electric vehicles. To create a consistent regulatory framework that would help this industry grow across Washington State, the legislature required the Puget Sound Regional Council and Department of Commerce to develop guidance for local governments. To meet this requirement, a broad-based technical advisory committee made up of local governments, charging equipment vendors, utilities, ports, state agencies, and consumer interests was formed. The state's new electric vehicle law requires that all local governments in Washington State allow electric vehicle charging stations in most of their zoning categories. Allowing charging stations creates the need to address a number of issues beyond zoning. These include on-street and off-street signage, charging station design standards, parking enforcement, accessibility for all users, SEPA exemptions, and more. These issues are addressed in this document.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A. 6/1/2010 Reports

Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the U.S. transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles' energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis ? which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation ? can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs.

Hybrid Electric Systems: Goals, Strategies, and Top Accomplishments 6/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Vehicle Technologies Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, is focused on enabling large-scale production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles that are cost-competitive with conventional vehicles. They endeavor to reduce the cost of electrochemical energy storage and low cost advanced power electronics and electric motor components by developing simulation tools and modeling capabilities.

NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use Project Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A. 6/1/2010 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery's cost via reuse in other applications after it is retired from service in the vehicle, when the battery may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy storage applications.

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation Markel, T. 4/8/2010 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure?from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid?must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions 4/1/2010 Reports

U.S. Department of Transportation, Center for Climate Change and Envrionmental Forecasting, Washington, DC

This U.S. Department of Transportation report is submitted in response to the requirements of Section 1101(c) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. It is intended to help inform the debate on surface transportation reauthorization and climate change legislation.</p><p>The report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels and trends from the transportation sector and analyzes the full range of strategies available to reduce these emissions. These strategies include: introducing low-carbon fuels, increasing vehicle fuel economy, improving transportation system efficiency, and reducing carbon-intensive travel activity. While the report does not provide recommendations, it does analyze five categories of policy options for implementing the strategies: an economy-wide price signal, efficiency standards, market incentives, transportation planning and funding programs and research and development.

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 3/1/2010 Reports

Committee to Assess Fuel Economy Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles evaluates various technologies and methods that could improve the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, transit buses, and work trucks. The book also recommends approaches that federal agencies could use to regulate these vehicles' fuel consumption. Currently there are no fuel consumption standards for such vehicles, which account for about 26 percent of the transportation fuel used in the U.S.</p><p>The book estimates the improvements that various technologies could achieve over the next decade in seven vehicle types. For example, using advanced diesel engines in tractor-trailers could lower their fuel consumption by up to 20 percent by 2020, and improved aerodynamics could yield an 11 percent reduction. Hybrid powertrains could lower the fuel consumption of vehicles that stop frequently, such as garbage trucks and transit buses, by as much 35 percent in the same time frame.

United Parcel Service (UPS) Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans 2/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s (NREL) FleetTest and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-serviceperformance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans?fueledby regular diesel?and six comparable conventional diesel vansoperated by the United Parcel Service (UPS). All the hybrid vans testedwere equipped with the same parallel hybrid system manufacturedby Eaton Corp., including a synchronous brushless, permanentmagnet motor (26-kW continuous power, 44-kW peak power)and lithium-ion batteries that provide 340 VDC and 1.8 kWh ofenergy storage. UPS is satisfied with its 50 prototype hybrid vansand ordered 200 more in 2009.

Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-Effective Vehicle Electrification Brooker, A.; Thornton, M.; Rugh, J. 2/1/2010 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This paper evaluates several approaches aimed at making plug-in electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) cost-effective including opportunity charging, replacing the battery over the vehicle life, improving battery life, reducing battery cost, and providing electric power directly to the vehicle during a portion of its travel. Many combinations of PHEV electric range and battery power are included. For each case, the model accounts for battery cycle life and the national distribution of driving distances to size the battery optimally. Using the current estimates of battery life and cost, only the dynamically plugged-in pathway was cost-effective to the consumer. Significant improvements in battery life and battery cost also made PHEVs more cost-effective than today's hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (CVs).

Clean Cities 2010 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 12/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 32-page booklet offers information about available 2010 alternative fuel vehicles including natural gas, propane, hybrid, ethanol and biodiesel vehicles.

An Action Plan for Cars: The Policies Needed to Reduce U.S. Petroleum Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Heywood, J.; Baptista, P.; Berry, I.; Bhatt, K.; Cheah, L.; De Sisternes, F.; Karplus, V.; Keith, D.; Khusid, M.; MacKenzie, D.; McAulay, J. 12/1/2009 Reports

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts

Reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from cars and light?]duty trucks in the United States over the next several decades requires that we implement a clear and coordinated set of policies now. This report describes a portfolio of policies which, in the view of the authors, is needed to put personal vehicle transportation on the road to sustainability in the longer term. To incentivize adoption of more fuel efficient vehicles, we propose coupling existing near?]term fuel economy standards with a feebate incentive program and gradual increases in fuel taxes. We further propose driver education initiatives that would give vehicle owners information on how to maximize fuel savings in their purchase and driving decisions. Finally, we underscore the need for a long?]term strategy for fuels that evaluates fuels?]related programs based on their contribution to reducing life?]cycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Together, these policies offer a robust plan of action that will focus and streamline current efforts to achieve these two important national goals. Perhaps most importantly, this plan lays a much?]needed foundation for a comprehensive, adaptable long?]term policy effort. A more detailed summary of the recommended set of policy measures can be found in Section 2.

Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans Lammert, M. 12/1/2009 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report focuses on a parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system currently being operated by United Parcel Service (UPS). The propulsion system is an alternative to the standard diesel system and could enable reductions in emissions, primarily particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen (NOx), as well as reductions in petroleum use. Hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately reduces petroleum use.

Model Year 2010 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, as well as one CNG vehicle and one hydrogen fuel cell vehicle for Model Year 2010.

Field Testing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Charge Control Technology in the Xcel Energy Territory Markel, T.; Bennion, K; Kramer, W.; Bryan, J.; Giedd, J. 8/1/2009 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Xcel Energy Corp., Minneapolis, Minnesota; Xcel Energy Corp., Minneapolis, Minnesota

This report outlines the results of a joint study by Xcel Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to understand the fuel displacement potential, costs, and emissions impacts of the market introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The goal of the current effort was to evaluate, under real-world conditions, the performance attributes of PHEVs with charge control technology in the Xcel Energy service territories. The intention was to expand our knowledge of PHEV benefits, consumer usage, and utility opportunities and challenges.

Analysis of Alternative Fuels & Vehicles for Taxicab Fleets 7/31/2009 Reports

Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association,

Since 2007, New York City, San Francisco, Boston and Seattle have issued local mandates requiring all taxicab fleets to achieve certain city driving mileage per gallon requirements in the near future. The requirements in New York City and Boston were withdrawn by the cities after federal judgesissued injunctions, barring the cities from enforcing the rules. The principal reason for the judicial finding was that the plaintiffs were likely to prevail on their argument that when Congress enacted corporate average fuel economy (?CAFE?) standards in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (?EPCA?), it had pre-empted state or municipal regulations ?related to fuel economy standards or average fuel economy standards for automobiles covered by an average fuel economy standard? under the EPCA. It appears the other city mandates, which are based on fuel economy standards are also preempted by federal law. </p><p>While some taxicab companies have had success with the currently available alternative fuel vehicles, taxicab fleets have documented numerous serious problems. Part of the reason for the different reports from taxicab companies is the different operating styles in the industry. Where thetaxicab driver owns the alternative fuel vehicle or a taxicab fleet restricts access to the alternative fuel vehicle to selected drivers the results are far better than for the industry norm of the fleet owning the vehicle and providing the vehicle to any qualified taxicab driver on any given day.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 13, No. 2 6/1/2009 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, Colorado

Newsletter reports on San Antonio's Green Patrol to reduce idling at schools; Propane Road Shows in Virginia, Maryland, and South Carolina; Green Fleet Workshops in Lansing, Michigan; CabAire truck stop electrification project; Tucson's Sustainability and Energy Expo; Antelope Valley, California, green vehicle charity event; and University of Illinois-Chicago fleet experience story.

Advancing New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels 5/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Vehicle Technologies Program under the U.S. Department of Energy is actively developing and accelerating the deployment of clean and efficient vehicle technologies, as well as renewable fuels. The Vehicle Technologies program works with industry, universities, and state and local governments to strengthen the economy, create jobs, and reduce the U.S. demand for petroleum.

Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift 4/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Clean Cities Program, Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Clean Cities helped Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, and San Antonio, Texas, create hybrid taxi programs that cut gasoline use and air pollution while pleasing drivers and passengers alike.