Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

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Title Author Date Category
Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C., Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities Overview and Contacts 8/15/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program with contact information for Clean Cities program staff and for the coordinators of the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

Clean Cities Overview: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation 8/15/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 Davis, S.C.; Diegel, S.W.; Boundy, R.G. 7/31/2014 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data).

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2014 Bourbon, E. 7/31/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2014 and July 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 5 cents from $3.65 to $3.70; diesel decreased 6 cents from $3.97 to $3.91; CNG price increased 2 cents from $2.15 to $2.17; ethanol (E85) decreased 18 cents from $3.41 to $3.23; propane decreased 24 cents from $3.31 to $3.07; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 3 cents from $4.01 to 3.98.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.53 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.86 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2014 Bourbon, E. 6/3/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2014 and April 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 31 cents from $3.34 to $3.65; diesel increased 8 cents from $3.89 to $3.97; CNG price increased 6 cents from $2.09 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 37 cents from $3.04 to $3.41; propane increased 19 cents from $3.12 to $3.31; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 5 cents from $3.97 to $4.01.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.50 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $1.17 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2014 Bourbon, E. 3/4/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2014 and January 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 11 cents from $3.45 to $3.34; diesel decreased 2 cents from $3.91 to $3.89; CNG price remained the same at $2.09; ethanol (E85) also remained the same at $3.04; propane increased 16 cents from $2.96 to $3.12; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 5 cents from $4.02 to $3.97.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.25 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.95 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

EPAct Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 3/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

Pocket Guide to Ethanol 2014 2/17/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

The Renewable Fuels Association's recently updated 2014 pocket guide contains new industry facts and statistics about ethanol. Topics covered include the Renewable Fuel Standard, investment and innovation in next generation biofuels, expansion of higher level ethanol blends, development of a global marketplace, and debunking of the food vs. fuel myth.

Notes: This publication can be ordered from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C. at http://www.ethanolrfa.org

Falling Walls and Rising Tides, 2014 Ethanol Industry Outlook 2/14/2014 Reports

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

This annual report looks at ethanol statistics and trends to assess the industry in 2014.

Notes: This publication is available from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C. at http://www.ethanolrfa.org

MY 2014 Flex-Fuel Vehicle Consumer Brochure 1/15/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

The Renewable Fuels Association's newly updated 2014 flex-fuel vehicle brochure lists the makes and models of vehicles that are available as FFVs.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C. @http://www.ethanolrfa.org

Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

Alternative Fuel Vehicle & Fueling Infrastructure Deployment Barriers & the Potential Role of Private Sector Financial Solutions Dougherty, S., Nigro, N. 12/31/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This paper examines how private financing can address the barriers to demand facing electric, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their related fueling infrastructure. Starting with a review of the state of the market, it covers significant barriers to market demand and barriers for private investors and concludes with a review of innovative finance options used in other sectors that could be applied to the alternative fuel vehicle market.

Cellulosic Biofuels Industry Progress Report, 2012-2013 12/13/2013 Reports

Advanced Ethanol Council, Washington, DC

This report provides a detailed snapshot of advances made toward the commercial deployment of cellulosic biofuels.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October, 2013 Bourbon, E. 12/3/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 4, 2013 and October 18, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 20 cents from $3.65 to $3.45; diesel remained the same at $3.91; CNG price has decreased 5 cents, from $2.14 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) has decreased 19 cents from $3.23 to $3.04; propane increased 23 cents from $2.73 to $2.96; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 13 cents from $3.89 to $4.02.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.36 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $0.22 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/1/2013 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

Model Year 2014: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 11/25/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Review and Evaluation of Studies on the Use of E15 in Light-Duty Vehicles McCormick, R.L., Yanowitz, J., Ratcliff, M., Zigler, B.T. 10/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Ecoengineering, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio

The objective of this study is to review and evaluate research conducted to date applicable to the effects of E15 on Model Year 2001 and newer cars, and to draw objective conclusions based on the entire available dataset. The project team reviewed 43 studies relevant to E15 usage in 2001 and newer model year on-highway automobiles.

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends 9/17/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

Advanced Biofuel Market Report 2013; Capacity through 2016 Solecki, M.; Scodel, A.; Epstein, B. 9/1/2013 Reports

Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2), San Francisco, California; Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

This report catalogs the growth and challenges of the advanced biofuel industry and provides updates on developments since the publication of last year's report in 2012. The scope of this work includes active advanced biofuel projects in the United States and Canada. Each project included in this report achieves at least a 50% reduction in carbon intensity relative to a petroleum baseline, using the direct and indirect effects as measured by the California Air Resources Board.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July, 2013 Babcock, S. 8/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 12, 2013 and July 26, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 6 cents from $3.59 to $3.65; diesel has decreased 8 cents from $3.99 to $3.91; CNG price has increased 4 cents, from $2.10 to $2.14; ethanol (E85) has decreased 7 cents from $3.30 to $3.23; propane in unchanged at $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 22 cents from $4.11 to $3.89.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.51 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $0.92 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Light-Duty Vehicle and Fuel Pathways: A Synthesis of Recent Research Nigro, N., Jiang, S. 7/19/2013 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

Transitioning to a cleaner fleet of advanced vehicles powered by electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels or petroleum products can yield a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum consumption. A meaningful assessment of the comparative merits of these alternate fuel pathways requires a solid understanding of their technological potential to reduce emissions. Available studies evaluating full lifecycle emissions rely on various assumptions of that potential and yield a wide range of results. This brief summarizes and synthesizes the results of several recent studies and presents the full range of greenhouse gas emission estimates for each type of advanced vehicle and fuel. It also explains the reasons these estimates vary so widely and identifies opportunities for future analyses that use a consistent set of scenarios with transparent assumptions in order to compare the greenhouse gas impacts of fuel and vehicle pathways.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

What is the GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator 6/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator was developed to use the GREET system to help fleets choose the alternative fuel vehicles that will best meet a variety of organizational transportation goals and legal requirements, including reducing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios. Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W. 4/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April, 2013 Babcock, S. 4/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between March 29, 2013 and April 12, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 30 cents from $3.29 to $3.59; diesel has increased 3 cents from $3.96 to $3.99; CNG price is unchanged, remaining $2.10; ethanol (E85) has increase 13 cents from $3.17 to $3.30; propane has increased 5 cents from $2.68 to $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 6 cents from $4.05 to $4.11.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.49 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.07 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A. 3/1/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January, 2013 Babcock, S. 2/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 10, 2013 and January 25, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 53 cents from $3.82 to $3.29; diesel has decreased 17 cents from $4.13 to $3.96; CNG price has decreased 2 cents from $2.12 to $2.10; ethanol (E85) has decreased 30 cents from $3.47 to $3.17; propane has increased 12 cents from $2.56 to $2.68; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 13 cents from $4.18 to $4.05.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.19 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.19 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Battling the Barrel, 2013 Ethanol Industry Outlook 2/1/2013 Reports

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

From its beginnings in the Midwest three decades ago, the U.S. ethanol industry has grown to 211 plants operating in 29 states, with annual capacity of 14.8 billion gallons.</p><p>Last year, in the midst of a severe drought and economic distress, the industry produced about 13.3 billion gallons of ethanol, very close to 2010 levels. However, 2012 was the first year since 1996, another drought year, to see a year-to-year decline in ethanol production.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is posted on the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy website Alternative Fuels Data Center with permission from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

Clean Cities 2013 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2013 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2013 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas.

Pocket Guide to Ethanol 2013 1/31/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

The RFA Pocket Guide to Ethanol 2013 contains updated industry facts and statistics. Topics covered include domestic market expansion, increasing national security, stimulating America's economy, expanding the global marketplace, statewide efforts made across the nation, and food vs. fuel.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is posted on the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy website Alternative Fuels Data Center with permission from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels 1/1/2013 Books & Chapters

Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs) operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns over petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. This report assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80% across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. It examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, effective, and sustained but adaptive policies such as research and development (R&D), subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers such as cost and consumer choice.

Notes: This book is available for purchase from The National Academies Press.

Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles, Preprint Melaina, M. Bremson, J., Solo, K 1/1/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of California Davis, Davis, California; Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado

The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

Notes: Presented at the 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference, Austin, Texas, November 4-7, 2012

Model Year 2013: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 12/13/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG vehicles.

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October, 2012 Babcock, S. 11/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between September 28, 2012 and October 12, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 30 cents from $3.52 to $3.82; diesel has increased 38 cents from $$3.75 to $4.13; CNG price has increased 7 cents from $2.05 to $2.12; ethanol (E85) has increased 23 cents from $3.24 to $3.47; propane has dropped 8 cents from $2.64 to $2.56; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 35 cents from $3.83 to $4.18.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.70 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.09 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Biofuels Issues and Trends 10/1/2012 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC

Biofuels is a collective term for liquid fuels derived from renewable sources, including ethanol, biodiesel, and other renewable liquid fuels. This report focuses on ethanol and biodiesel, the most widely available biofuels. From 2009 to the middle of 2012, the U.S. biofuels industry increased its output and prepared to meet an expanded Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2), which requires increasing volumes of biofuels use. In 2011, the biofuels industry transitioned away from tax incentives for non-cellulosic biofuels, which expired at the end of 2011. Annual ethanol and biodiesel consumption, production, imports, and exports during 2009-11 are summarized in Table 1.

Blending Fuels; A Petroleum Marketer's Guide to Blender Pumps, E85 & Mid-Level Ethanol Blends 10/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

American Coalition for Ethanol and Renewable Fuels Association

Today's petroleum marketers - who find themselves at the center of rising costs and consumers calling for change - can benefit from adding ethanol at their stations in two innovative ways: installing blender pumps and retailing mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs), which are ethanol blends beyond 10%.</p><p>Used for years to blend and dispense unleaded and premium to give customers several octane choices, blender pumps are now finding a home in the retailing of ethanol fuels, providing stations the unique opportunity to offer mid-level blends between E10 and E85 or to simply blend their own ethanol to create E10 and/or E85. The stations benefit from the blending economics of higher-volume ethanol sales, and their customers enjoy this new array of fuel choices at the pump. </p><p>In this new application, blender pumps typically utilize two underground tanks, one containing unleaded gasoline and the other containing E85. In addition to offering more traditional fuels such as unleaded, E10, and E85, the fuel pump can also dispense a variety of mid-level ethanol blends - often E20, E30, and E40 - which are created by mixing the appropriate percentages of fuel from each underground tank.

Transit on the Cutting Edge of Clean Technology 9/1/2012 Reports

American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC

This white paper reviews the substantial progress that transit agencies have made in investing in innovative clean technologies and fuels, such as electricity, hybrid vehicles, electric storage, biofuels, natural gas, and hydrogen fuel cells.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No. 2 9/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July, 2012 Babcock, S. 8/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 13, 2012 and July 27, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has dropped 37 cents from $3.89 to $3.52; diesel has dropped 37 cents from $$4.12 to $3.75; CNG price has dropped 3 cents from $2.08 to $2.05; ethanol (E85) has dropped 23 cents from $3.47 to $3.24; propane has dropped 27 cents from $2.91 to $2.64; and biodiesel (B20) has dropped 35 cents from $4.18 to $3.83.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.47 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.06 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Annual Energy Outlook 2012; with Projections to 2035 6/1/2012 Reports

U.S. Energy Information Administration

The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (AEO2012) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2012 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2012 is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 29 alternative cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy. Many of the implications of the alternative cases are discussed in the "Issues in focus" section of this report.</p><p>Key results highlighted in AEO2012 include continued modest growth in demand for energy over the next 25 years and increased domestic crude oil and natural gas production, largely driven by rising production from tight oil and shale resources. As a result, U.S. reliance on imported oil is reduced; domestic production of natural gas exceeds consumption, allowing for net exports; a growing share of U.S. electric power generation is met with natural gas and renewables; and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions remain below their 2005 level from 2010 to 2035, even in the absence of new Federal policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2012 Babcock, S. 5/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between March 30, 2012 and April 13, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 52 cents per gallon from $3.37 per gallon to $3.89 per gallon; diesel has risen 26 cents per gallon from $3.86 to $4.12; CNG price has dropped 5 cents from $2.13 to $2.08; ethanol (E85) has risen 33 cents from $3.14 to $3.47 per gallon; propane has dropped 17 cents from $3.08 to $2.91; and biodiesel (B20) has risen 23 cents from $3.95 to $4.18 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.81 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.01 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 16, No.1 5/1/2012 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-iannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Blender Pump Dispensers 4/2/2012 Technology Bulletins

Federal and local initiatives to increase the use of ethanol in transportation have resulted in an increase of new ideas and applications for flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) and E85, a high-level gasoline blend containing 51% to 83% ethanol, depending on geography or season. Consumers, fueling station operators, and public safety officials have shown interest in new FFV fueling alternatives. One of these options is the ethanol blender pump dispenser.

E15 Misfueling Mitigation Plan 3/2/2012 Reports

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

The purpose of this Misfueling Mitigation Plan (MMP) is to set forth how the plan submitter will comply with the misfueling mitigation conditions established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) in its October 13, 2010, and January 21, 2011, partial waivers allowing fuel and fuel additive manufacturers to introduce into U.S. commerce ethanol blends containing greater than 10 volume percent and no more than 15 volume percent ethanol (E15) for use in model year 2001 and newer light duty motor vehicles. The MMP, which is intended to reduce the potential of E15 being used in all engines, vehicles and equipment for which waivers have not been granted by the Agency, addresses the following required elements: E15 pump labeling, tracking of E15 through the supply chain through product transfer documentation, and implementation surveys of E15 content and labeling compliance.<p>Because this plan has been developed as a model plan, a company that wishes to use it must notify EPA in writing that the company seeks approval of the plan for the company's use in meeting the requirements for an MMP. Before deciding whether to approve a plan, EPA may seek additional information and/or misfueling mitigation measures as appropriate in view of the company's circumstances. EPA must approve a company's submission of this MMP before the company may use it to demonstrate its compliance with the partial waiver conditions.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is posted on the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy website Alternative Fuels Data Center with permission from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory 3/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 3/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas.

E15 Retailer Handbook 3/1/2012 Reports

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved the use of E15 ethanol fuels in light duty vehicles built since model year (MY) 2001. The EPA has specifically excluded light duty vehicles built before 2001, as well as non-automotive, marine, and other small engines.<p>The Renewable Fuels Association?s (RFA) E15 Retailer Handbook is designed to provide fuel retailers with regulatory and technical guidance in order to legally store and sell E15 ethanol blends. The Handbook provides sample checklists and questions that all potential E15 retailers should contemplate before moving forward with offerings of E15.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is posted on the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy website Alternative Fuels Data Center with permission from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2012 Babcock, S. 2/1/2012 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2012 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 13, 2012 and January 27, 2012, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 9 cents per gallon from $3.46 per gallon to $3.37 per gallon; diesel has risen 5 cents per gallon from $3.81 to $3.86; CNG price has risen 4 cents from $2.09 to $2.13; ethanol (E85) has dropped 5 cents from $3.19 to $3.14 per gallon; propane has risen 2 cents from $3.06 to $3.08; and biodiesel (B20) has risen 4 cents from $3.91 to $3.95 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.24 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.07 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Accelerating Industry Innovation, 2012 Ethanol Industry Outlook 2/1/2012 Reports

Renewable Fuel Association, Washington, D.C.

For much of this century, America's ethanol producers have expanded the supply of domestic renewable fuel by leaps and bounds to meet surging domestic demand. In 2011, many of those domestic markets are being saturated as the industry dutifully works to bring E15 ethanol blends into widespread use. Nevertheless, demand for American-made ethanol is strong - both at home and abroad. As it always has, the industry has responded.<p>Two-thousand eleven marked yet another production record for U.S. ethanol with an estimated 13.9 billion gallons of ethanol operating at 209 ethanol biorefineries located in 29 states. That is an increase from the 13.2 billion gallons of ethanol production in 2010 and up from 1.63 billion gallons in 2000. Annually, these biorefineries have the capacity for 14.9 billion gallons of production and that capacity is growing.

Life-Cycle Analysis of Shale Gas and Natural Gas Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. 12/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis Pathways with GREET Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Palou-Rivera, I.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.Q. 11/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel na

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2011 Babcock, S. 11/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between September 30, 2011 and October 14, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 22 cents per gallon from $3.68 per gallon to $3.46 per gallon; CNG price has risen 2 cents from $2.07 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) has dropped 7 cents from $3.26 to $3.19 per gallon; propane has dropped 3 cents from $3.09 to $3.06; and biodiesel (B20) has dropped 11 cents from $4.02 to $3.91 per gallon.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.37 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $1.05 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 15, No. 2 10/1/2011 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now features news and articles about Clean Cities coalition activities in promoting the reduction in the use of petroleum transportation fuel. The October 2011 issue features stories about idle reduction equipment benefits, coordinator profiles, the 2011 Clean Cities Stakeholder Summit and other coalition news.

High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines. Hilbert, D. 10/1/2011 Reports

Mercury Marine, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability.

Model Year 2012 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG vehicles.

U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan Johnson, C. 9/1/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 60% by 2025 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Ground-based transportation is responsible for 40% of USVI petroleum use, so the USVI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) set up a Transportation working group (TWG) to devise a way to meet the 60% reduction goal in the transportation sector. This report lays out the TWG's plan.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2011 Babcock, S. 8/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 14, 2011 and July 29, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has dropped 1 cent per gallon from $3.69 per gallon to $3.68 per gallon; CNG price has risen 1 cent from $2.06 to $2.07; ethanol (E85) has risen 6 cents from $3.20 to $3.26 per gallon; propane has dropped 10 cents from $3.19 to $3.09; and biodiesel has dropped 3 cents from $4.05 to $4.02 per gallon. CNG is about $1.61 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 92 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry Perlack, R.; Stokes, B. 8/1/2011 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy

This report, generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study, is an estimate of "potential" biomass within the contiguous United States based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory and production capacity, availability, and technology. In the 2005 BTS, a strategic analysis was undertaken to determine if U.S. agriculture and forest resources have the capability to potentially produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, in a sustainable manner - enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's present petroleum consumption. To ensure reasonable confidence in the study results, an effort was made to use relatively conservative assumptions. However, for both agriculture and forestry, the resource potential was not restricted by price. That is, all identified biomass was potentially available, even though some potential feedstock would more than likely be too expensive to actually be economically available.

Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions 7/29/2011 Technology Bulletins

Rising gasoline prices and concerns about climate change have greatly increased public interest in ethanol use, including E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). Vehicle manufacturers currently offer E85-compatible flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) in a wide variety of makes and models at little or no extra cost. In spite of the availability of new and used FFVs, many consumers are curious about the prospects for converting their existing gasoline vehicles to operate on E85.

Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95 Alleman, T. 7/1/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

Approximately 10% of the fuel grade ethanol is blended into "E85," which is nominally 85 vol% fuel grade ethanol in a balance of gasoline or other hydrocarbons. To increase the number of ethanol blends available in the United States beyond these two markets, several states have provided incentives for the installation of so-called "blender pumps" that can blend gasoline with "E85." At the writing of this report, there is no specification or standard practice that governs the properties of these blended fuels and little information is available about the content or qualities of fuels sold at blender pumps. No labeling conventions exist for blender pumps. However, efforts are underway within ASTM to develop a standard guide for mid-level ethanol blends and the Federal Trade Commission has proposed regulations designed to improve the consistency and uniformity of blender pump labeling.

Gasoline Ethanol Blends and the Classic Auto 6/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

The ongoing effort to alter gasoline to minimize its impact on the environment and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign crude oil has refocused attention on fuel quality issues. The increased use of ethanol, now in well over 90 percent of the nation's gasoline, has prompted questions and sometimes raised concerns with the antique auto community. For the owner of a classic automobile that question is whether today's fuels will work in yesterday's automobiles.</p><p>Owners of classic vehicles have unique considerations: the vehicle's fuel system may differ significantly from that of modern cars; the vehicle usually is not driven often and is stored for long periods; and the vehicle probably operates rich at specified air/fuel settings compared to modern cars. In the case of "muscle cars," the compression ratio may dictate the use of very high octane gasoline and, if the valve seats are not hardened, the effect of unleaded gasoline with, or without ethanol, on exhaust valve seats may be an issue.</p><p>Unfortunately, limited information has been written in a manner that addresses these concerns from the perspective of the classic car owner. This paper is meant to address fuel related questions and concerns for these unique car owners.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is posted on the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy website Alternative Fuels Data Center with permission from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) ID NO. 0137SPE012: Speedway E85 5/25/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Speedway LLC, Enon, Ohio

This material safety data sheet explains some of the hazards and safety procedures needed for working around ethanol gasoline blends such as E85.

Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol; Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.;Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D. 5/1/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.<p>This report describes in detail one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Ancillary areas-feed handling, product recovery, wastewater treatment, lignin combustion, and utilities-are also included in the design. Detailed material and energy balances and capital and operating costs were developed for theentire process, and they are documented in this report.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2011 Babcock, S. 5/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2011 and April 15, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 61 cents per gallon from $3.08 per gallon to $3.69 per gallon; CNG price has risen from $1.93 to $2.06; ethanol (E85) has risen 45 cents from 2.75 to $3.20 per gallon; and biodiesel has risen 55 cents from $3.50 to $4.05. CNG is about $1.63 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 83 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 5/1/2011

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels?electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. </p><p>The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. </p><p>The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

Advancing Renewable Energy 5/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Agriculture

This brochure provides an overview of USDA's energy related programs and how USDA collaboration efforts are making a measurable impact in the world of renewable energy.

2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report Ward, J.; Davis, S.; Batten, B.; Diegel, S.; Duggal, V.; Duleep, K.; Smith, R.; Yeakel, S. 3/1/2011 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals, and Sealants Kass, M.; Theiss, T.; Janke, C.; Pawel, S.; Lewis, S. 3/1/2011 Reports

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

A key provision of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 isthe Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) which requires the nation to use 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel in vehicles by 2022. Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel, and a significant portion of the 36 billion gallon goal can be achieved by increasing the ethanol in gasoline to 15%. In March 2009, Growth Energy (a coalition of ethanol producers and supporters) requested a waiver from the Environmental Protection Agency to allow the use of 15% ethanol in gasoline. In anticipation of this waiver being granted, uncertainties arose as to whether additional fuel ethanol, such as E15 and E20, would be compatible with legacy and current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. The U.S. Department of Energy recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This research effort was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory incollaboration with Underwriters Laboratories. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program.

E15 Approved for Use in 2001 and Newer Vehicles 2/11/2011 Technology Bulletins

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires refineries and fuel blenders to sell specific volumes of biofuels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) each year. In anticipation of increased ethanol consumption, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) started an engine and passenger vehicle test program in 2007 to determine the impacts of mid-level ethanol blends.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2011 Laughlin, M.D. 2/1/2011 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2011 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 24, 2011 and February 7, 2011, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 30 cents per gallon from $2.78 per gallon to $3.08 per gallon; CNG price has remained the same at $1.93; and ethanol (E85) has risen 31 cents from $2.44 to $2.75 per gallon. CNG is about $1.15 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 81 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Building Bridges to a More Sustainable Future, 2011 Ethanol Industry Outlook 2/1/2011 Reports

Renewable Fuel Association, Washington, D.C.

From 1.6 billion gallons of production at the start of the decade, American ethanol producers provided an estimated 13 billion gallons of domestic renewable fuel in 2010 ? an 800 percent increase and another annual production record. Year over year, ethanol production increased more than 20 percent. This increase was achieved through improvements in ethanol production technologies, increased awareness of the need for renewable alternatives to oil, and thoughtful public policy that seeks to level the playing field forrenewable fuels in a market nearly monopolized by petroleum. Mirroring the rise in production, America's use of ethanol also soared, driven by both the demands of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and the economic value of ethanol as a blending component in gasoline. Today, well over 90 percent of all gasoline sold in the U.S. is blended with ethanol. According to data estimated and calculated by the RFA, ethanol demand averaged 860,000 barrels per day in 2010, for a total of 13.1 billion gallons.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is posted on the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy website Alternative Fuels Data Center with permission from Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Guidebook to available Model Year 2011 alternative fuel and advanced vehicles including electric, plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles as well as vehicles powered by natural gas, propane, ethanol and biodiesel.

Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy 1/1/2011 Books & Chapters

Committee on Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increasing Biofuels Production; National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Renewable Fuel Standard evaluates the economic and environmental consequences of increasing biofuels production as a result of Renewable Fuels Standard, as amended by EISA (RFS2). The report describes biofuels produced in 2010 and those projected to be produced and consumed by 2022, reviews model projections and other estimates of the relative impact on the prices of land, and discusses the potential environmental harm and benefits of biofuels production and the barriers to achieving the RFS2 consumption mandate.

Notes: Book available for purchase from The National Academies Press

Waste to Wheels: Building for Success Richardson, G. 12/1/2010

Energy Vision, New York City, New York

On the eve of the 21st century, a study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy pegged at 10 billion gasoline gallon equivalents (close to 9 billion diesel gallon equivalents) the amount of renewable natural gas (RNG) that could be made from organic wastes at landfills, at wastewater plants, and on farms. Displacing 10 billion gasoline gallons of road fuel with RNG would not only lessen U.S. dependence on imported oil but also prevent, every year, 580 million tons of carbon dioxide from entering and heating up the global atmosphere. In contrast to fossil fuel combustion, which unlocks buried carbon from ages past, RNG recycles carbon active in the biosphere today--carbon that is taken out of the air by plants when they grow and put back when they decay. For this reason, RNG has negligible impact on global warming. In fact, according to research in the U.S. and Europe, including a recent report by Argonne National Laboratory, RNG is the fuel with the lowest carbon content of any fuels currently available (see page 26).

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2010 Laughlin, M.D. 11/1/2010 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2010 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 4, 2010 and October 14, 2010, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 7 cents per gallon from $2.71 per gallon to $2.78 per gallon; CNG price has risen 2 cents from $1.91 to $1.93; and ethanol (E85) has risen 14 cents from $2.30 to $2.44 per gallon. CNG is about 85 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 67 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T. 11/1/2010 Reports

Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Northbrook, Illinois

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels withcurrent infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE andNREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

Model Year 2011 Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as one CNG vehicle.

Effects of Increased Biofuels on the U.S. Economy in 2022 Gahlhar, M.; Winston, A.; Somwaru, A. 10/1/2010 Reports

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Washington, D.C.; United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Washington, D.C.;United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Washington, D.C.

Reducing dependence on foreign energy by expanding domestic renewablefuels can have impacts for the overall U.S. economy because of energy'simportance in consumption, production, and trade. In the past, increasingenergy independence would generally be expected to place a greater burdenon the U.S. economy because of the higher domestic costs of producing alternative energy to replace relatively inexpensive foreign petroleum. However, according to the U.S. Department of Energy, petroleum prices are morelikely to continue rising in the long term relative to the cost of producingdomestic biofuels. Although the exact timing is uncertain, cost-reducingtechnology in biofuel production is expected to be a key factor in expandingproduction and making biofuels competitive with petroleum. However,without policies that provide incentives to deploy renewable energy technology,biofuel producers likely will shy away from investing in new technologybecause of market uncertainty. The RFS-2 mandate is accompaniedby incentives in the form of tax credits to ethanol blenders. Tax credits,however, could add to taxpayers' costs and place a greater burden on theeconomy. This study examines the potential effects of the RFS-2 on the U.S.economy as measured by gross domestic product (GDP), household incomeand consumption, price and quantity of energy fuels, and agricultural productionand trade. We compare the U.S. economy in 2022 with and without theRFS-2.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2010 Laughlin, M.D. 9/1/2010 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2010 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 12, 2010 and July 23, 2010, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has fallen 13 cents per gallon from $2.84 per gallon to $2.71 per gallon; CNG price has risen 1 cents from $1.90 to $1.91; and ethanol (E85) has fallen 12 cents from $2.42 to $2.30 per gallon. CNG is about 80 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 54 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 14, No. 2 9/1/2010 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now, a semi-annual publication, is a roundup of events and news about the Clean Cities Coalitions including the Plug-In Vehicle and Infrastructure Workshop (July 2010), propane conversions, and stories about successful applications of alternative fuels.

Identification and Review of State/Federal Legislative and Regulatory Changes Required for the Introduction of New Transportation Fuels 8/4/2010 Reports

Sierra Research Inc., Sacramento, California

Sierra Research has, at the request of the American Petroleum Institute, conducted an independent review of existing federal, state and other statutes, regulations, and requirements that must be changed and other significant implementation hurdles that must be overcome prior to the introduction of E15 and other new transportation fuels into commerce.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2010 Laughlin, M.D. 6/1/2010 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2010 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 2 and April 12, 2010, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 19 cents per gallon from $2.65 per gallon to $2.84 per gallon; CNG price has risen 5 cents from $1.85 to $1.90; and ethanol (E85) has risen 4 cents from $2.38 to $2.42 per gallon. CNG is about 94 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 58 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

2008 Energy Balance for the Corn-Ethanol Industry Shapouri, H.; Gallagher, P.; Nefstead, W.; Schwartz, R.; Noe, S.; Conway, R. 6/1/2010 Reports

Office of Energy Policy and New Users, Office of the Chief Economist, USDA, Washington, DC; Economics Department, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; Applied Economics Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Agricultural Economics Department, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska; Agricultural Entrepreneurship Initiative, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; Office of Energy Policy and New Users, Ofrfice of the Chief Economist, USDA, Washington, DC

The ratio of energy in a gallon of ethanol relative to the external fossil energy required to produce the corn and process and ship the ethanol is an important measure of sustainability of the cornethanol industry. Recent updates of energy balance calculations have verified enhanced industry performance and identified methods that could yield further improvement. The 2008 updates presented in this report record the effects of current practices used by corn producers and ethanol processors. Current fertilizer practices are taken into account using recent data collected by the USDA. The current standards of electrical and processing energy use in the corn-ethanol industry are taken from a recent survey of ethanol producers.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Landfill Gas-Based Pathways and Their Addition to the GREET Model Mintz, M.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Saricks, C. 5/1/2010 Reports

Center for Transportation Research, Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-topump (WTP), pump-to-wheel (PTW), and WTW energy, fossil fuel, and GHG emissions for each LFG-based pathway are then summarized and compared with similar estimates for fossil natural gas and petroleum pathways.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2010 Laughlin, M.D. 4/1/2010 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2010 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between Jan. 19 and Jan. 29, 2010, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price for regular gasoline has risen 1 cent per gallon from $2.64 per gallon to $2.65 per gallon; CNG price has dropped 1 cent from $1.86 to $1.85; and ethanol (E85) has risen 11 cents from $2.27 to $2.38 per gallon. CNG is about 80 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about 71 cents more per gallon than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions 4/1/2010 Reports

U.S. Department of Transportation, Center for Climate Change and Envrionmental Forecasting, Washington, DC

This U.S. Department of Transportation report is submitted in response to the requirements of Section 1101(c) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. It is intended to help inform the debate on surface transportation reauthorization and climate change legislation.</p><p>The report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels and trends from the transportation sector and analyzes the full range of strategies available to reduce these emissions. These strategies include: introducing low-carbon fuels, increasing vehicle fuel economy, improving transportation system efficiency, and reducing carbon-intensive travel activity. While the report does not provide recommendations, it does analyze five categories of policy options for implementing the strategies: an economy-wide price signal, efficiency standards, market incentives, transportation planning and funding programs and research and development.

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice 3/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Clean Cities, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Flexible Fuel vehicles can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today almost 8 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasibility Study 3/1/2010 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

This study was prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in response to Section 243 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). Section 243 directs DOE to study the feasibility of constructing and using pipelines dedicated to the transportation of ethanol. It specifically requires DOE to analyze the following:(a) In General: The Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation, shall conduct a study of the feasibility of the construction of pipelines dedicated to the transportation of ethanol. (b) Factors for Consideration: In conducting the study under subsection (a), the Secretary shall take into consideration:(1) the quantity of ethanol production that would make dedicated pipelines economically viable; (2) existing or potential barriers to the construction of pipelines dedicated to the transportation of ethanol, including technical, siting, financing, and regulatory barriers; (3) market risk (including throughput risk) and means of mitigating the risk; (4) regulatory, financing, and siting options that would mitigate the risk and help ensure the construction of 1 or more pipelines dedicated to the transportation of ethanol; (5) financial incentives that may be necessary for the construction of pipelines dedicated to the transportation of ethanol, including the return on equity that sponsors of the initial dedicated ethanol pipelines will require to invest in the pipelines; (6) technical factors that may compromise the safe transportation of ethanol in pipelines, including identification of remedial and preventive measures to ensure pipeline integrity; and (7) such other factors as the Secretary considers to be appropriate.

EPA Finalizes Regulations for the National Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2010 and Beyond 2/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing revisions to the National Renewable Fuel Standard program (commonly known as the RFS program). This rule makes changes to the Renewable Fuel Standard program as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The revised statutory requirements establish new specific annual volume standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel that must be used in transportation fuel. The revised statutory requirements also include new definitions and criteria for both renewable fuels and the feedstocks used to produce them, including new greenhouse gas (GHG) emission thresholds as determined by lifecycle analysis. The regulatory requirements for RFS will apply to domestic and foreign producers and importers of renewable fuel used in the U.S.

EPA Lifecycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Fuels 2/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

As part of revisions to the National Renewable Fuel Standard program (commonly known as the RFS program) as mandated in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), EPA has analyzed lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from increased renewable fuels use. EISA established eligibility requirements for renewable fuels, including the first U.S. mandatory lifecycle GHG reduction thresholds, which determine compliance with four renewable fuel categories. The regulatory purpose of EPA's lifecycle GHG emissions analysis is, therefore, to determine whether renewable fuels produced under varying conditions meet the GHG thresholds for the different categories of renewable fuel. Determining compliance with the thresholds requires a comprehensive evaluation of renewable fuels, as well as of gasoline and diesel, on the basis of their lifecycle emissions.

A Survey of Current Biomass Gasification Processes for Methanol Production White, Herbert M. 12/30/2009 Reports

Mobile Systems Directorate, The Aerospace Corporation

OUT OF PRINT REPORT: Publication Date: July 1983. This report reviews the status of several biomass gasification processes capable of producing a synthesis gas for converesion to methanol. The overall process operations are presented but attention focuses on the gasifier itself. The main features of the various types are described, with emphasis on the principal technical problem area that have been identified. In general, these problems relate to heat transfer, material, catalyst, and mechanical difficulties that have been encountered during development. Satisfactory solutions must be demonstrated on advanced, high perofrmance gasifiers operated in large scale pilot facilities. Beyond these technical hurdles remains the obstacle of proving economical competitiveness with conventional methanol sources.

Clean Cities 2010 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 12/1/2009 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 32-page booklet offers information about available 2010 alternative fuel vehicles including natural gas, propane, hybrid, ethanol and biodiesel vehicles.

E85 Dispenser Study Moriarty, K.; Johnson, C.; Sears, T.; Bergeron, P. 12/1/2009 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This study reviews E85 dispensing infrastructure advances and issues and evaluates the geographic concentration of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), E85 stations, ethanol production facilities, and E85 suppliers. Costs, space, financial incentives, and barriers to adding E85 fueling equipment at existing stations are also assessed.</p><p>This study found that E85 is increasingly available in the U.S. in half of the states; however, the other half have minimal or no E85 fueling options. Despite these gains, E85 is only available at 1% of U.S. gasoline stations. Ethanol production reached 9.5 billion gallons in 2008, but less than 1% is consumed as E85. FFVs have not reached a significant concentration in any county, metropolitan area, or state.

An Action Plan for Cars: The Policies Needed to Reduce U.S. Petroleum Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Heywood, J.; Baptista, P.; Berry, I.; Bhatt, K.; Cheah, L.; De Sisternes, F.; Karplus, V.; Keith, D.; Khusid, M.; MacKenzie, D.; McAulay, J. 12/1/2009 Reports

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts

Reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from cars and light?]duty trucks in the United States over the next several decades requires that we implement a clear and coordinated set of policies now. This report describes a portfolio of policies which, in the view of the authors, is needed to put personal vehicle transportation on the road to sustainability in the longer term. To incentivize adoption of more fuel efficient vehicles, we propose coupling existing near?]term fuel economy standards with a feebate incentive program and gradual increases in fuel taxes. We further propose driver education initiatives that would give vehicle owners information on how to maximize fuel savings in their purchase and driving decisions. Finally, we underscore the need for a long?]term strategy for fuels that evaluates fuels?]related programs based on their contribution to reducing life?]cycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Together, these policies offer a robust plan of action that will focus and streamline current efforts to achieve these two important national goals. Perhaps most importantly, this plan lays a much?]needed foundation for a comprehensive, adaptable long?]term policy effort. A more detailed summary of the recommended set of policy measures can be found in Section 2.